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-Anshul Tewari

girl child indiaIndia is a vast country. A country which has left behind a number of stigmas and prejudices to move ahead as one nation. A nation with a cultural diversity, one can always find harmonious existence in a number of cities and towns of India. But, in a number of states, villages, cities and towns, another existence found is that of gender bias. Gender bias at the time when a child is born, leading to female foeticide and female infanticide.

This problem is not usually found in a number of families belonging to the urban literate class. The problem pertains to the families having a rural or a traditional background (by traditional I mean those who believed in this act).

Now after 6 decades of Independence India, or rather Indians are not being able to give up their thoughts. The thoughts which make a girls child a bad omen for a family.

We often see a number of incidents in the news related to this issue. Recently, a girl child, barely a few months old, was found in a garbage box. There have been incidents of the foetus lying in farms, floating in rivers, wrapped up in jute bags and left to die. A number of reasons lead to this heinous crime. To quote some, want of a male child to carrying the name of the family forward, lighting the funeral pyre to hoping for a bread earner are a few. The most prevalent these days is the fear of the demand for dowry. This has often been noticed that killing an unborn or just born girl child is better than paying a huge sum as dowry at a later stage. This mentality is specifically found in the rural areas and also in a few metropolitan cities. The states of Bangalore, Punjab, Delhi, Himachal, Rajasthan are among others having a high rate of female foeticide cases.

Sex determination is ever increasing in India even though there are strict laws against it. In 1994, the Government of India passed the Pre- conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act with the aim of preventing female foeticide. The implementation of this Act was slow. It was later amended and replaced in 2002 by the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act without ever having been properly implemented.

The Act has a central and state level Supervisory Board, an Appropriate Authority, and supporting Advisory Committee. The function of the Supervisory Board is to oversee, monitor,and make amendments to the provisions of the Act. Appropriate Authority provides
registration, and conducts the administrative work involved in inspection, investigation, and the penalizing of defaulters. The Advisory Committee provides expert and technical support to the Appropriate Authority. Contravening the provisions of the Act can lead to a fine of Rs 10,000 and up to three years imprisonment for a first offence, with greater fines and longer terms of imprisonment for repeat offenders. The Appropriate Authority informs the central or state medical council to take action against medical professionals, leading to suspension or the striking off of practitioners found guilty of contravening the provisions of the Act.
Before conducting any prenatal diagnostic procedure, the medical practitioner must obtain a written consent from the pregnant woman in a local language that she understands. Prenatal tests may be performed in various specified circumstances, including risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the case of women over 35, and genetic diseases evident in the family history of the couple. Implementation of the 1994 Act

We conducted a study to assess the implementation of the 1994 Act in South Delhi and make recommendations for its improvement. This involved examining the organizational structure,observing 26 clinics, and distributing a questionnaire to patients. The results showed up serious failures in management and implementation, lack of commitment and motivation, widespread corruption, and little knowledge in clinics of the provisions of the Act. The presence of individuals outside the medical profession, in particular those involved with human rights, would have helped to prevent fraternity bias — an unwillingness to bring medical colleagues to account.

The survey of patient attitudes showed that only 40% of male patients and 30% of female patients were aware of the prohibition of sex determination. While 90% purported to agree with the principle of the Act, they nevertheless maintained that a male child was important for the strengthening of the family.


1. nearly 10 million female fetuses have been aborted in the country over the past two decades

2. the United Nations has reported that India’s female ratio between 0-6 years age group has fallen to 896 females per 1,000 males, the lowest ever in a decade for the world’s second most populous nation

3. about three-fourths of the women in the suburban area know about the sex determination test, and female foeticide is favored both in rural and urban areas

4. of the 12 million girls born in India, one million do not see their first birthday

5. seven thousand fewer girls are born in India each day than the global average would suggest

Solution, anyone?

It is a deeply ingrained patriarchal attitude to which even the medical profession and the women, who in spite of being the victims, unthinkingly subscribe.

The only long-term solution is to change attitudes. Conventionally girls are seen as burdens, as huge dowries have to be paid for their weddings and even if they do earn income, it adds only to the capacities of the family into which they marry. It is said that if a girl child is born in a family, it means that the family has been bestowed with a good luck charm and that they must have done a good deed in their previous life. But then why are people not realising the importance of a girl? Is marriage the only resort of a girl, can’t she live life according to her own means? Can’t she for once decide her life? Then why?

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  1. Apurva

    Ah Well, something which truly needed to come up on YKA. Female foeticide is like one of the most heinous crimes imaginable on this planet. And, Unfortunately, it is most prevalent in India, the land of hundreds of goddesses! Surprisingly, people are so sick and cheap that they just conveniently forget that it is the woman they kill, who give birth to them. I seriously wish that it is better to live in a female world, with lesbianism, and all, than have bloody idiots who kill in the name of “honour and family traditions” . Why not kill the goddesses then? Aren’t children the incarnation of gods?

    AND, Biologically, for your kind information (to the wretched people) , the Guy is at fault. cuz the woman can give only X chromosome, and the guy has the “apparent” choice to give an X or a Y chromosome.
    Go kill, that’s the only thing you can ruddy well do to prove your masculinity. Women don’t need to, cuz every minute and moment, we show who the stronger ones are.

    And it’s a very well written and well covered article, statistically.

  2. Youth Ki Awaaz

    Hi Apurva,

    A great comment indeed. Your feelings for the issue have come out. It feels good to read comments of readers like you who feel for a cause and believe in change.

    Youth Ki Awaaz

  3. Andrew Lehman

    I’ve been exploring the possibility that female foeticide and female infanticide are the equivalent of male sexual selection.

    My reducing the number of females, the less idea males can not find mates. A society stablizes around partifocal beliefs as only males exhibiting ideal feature procreate.

    This is in contrast to female sexual selection in a matrifocal society where there less clearly defined ideal males, more cultural flexibility.

  4. Youth Ki Awaaz

    Hi Andrew,

    Well, you have clearly said what we wanted to say. The Indian mindset and the contrast in the male and female sex selection are certainly the reason behind female foeticide and female infanticide.

    One must build measure to reach out to a person and make him understand his mis deeds.

    Youth Ki Awaaz

  5. Mitu khurana

    HI Anshul, A great article, but you are talking about the general public. Anshul, when i went to file a complaint against my husband and in laws for forcing me to abort my daughters- the appropriate authority , yes the C.D.M.O asked me to give my husband a son, if thats what my husband and in laws desire. Anshul, in every police station and court the emphasis is that i settle the cases, and withdraw my complaints. A woman`s place is her in laws house, not the court rooms, even if it is to fight female feticide. Anshul… it is easy to make laws, but how difficult it is to implement them in the true sense is what I see day in and day out. 14 years have passed since the act has been passed- 2000 girls are killed before birth EVERY DAY in India, and not 14 convictions have taken place…. why

  6. jomy

    In less than a decade from now, the diminishing sex ratio is going to cause total chaos in our social and economic life. By then, the decreasing child sex ratio of the first decade of the third millennium will be the horrifyingly skewed youth sex ratio of the third decade. All type of anti-social trends like the selling of women as goods and widespread violence against women will destroy our family life, social life and economic progress which are now held in high esteem by the world community.

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