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And you thought you knew the game…

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Tanaya Singh:

This page is dedicated to all die-hard cricket fans. By “die-hard” I mean the ones who worship Sachin and were found throwing parties when he made the recent historical record, and the ones who stand in front of showroom windows when they don’t want to miss a single ball of the match, and also the ones who sit down full spirited after every game to watch the replays as if they are seeing it for the first time. Yeah, I know that just now, I was successful in talking about half the population of our country. So now that you are a fan, or you think you are one, don’t you think you should have sufficient knowledge not only about the scores and records, but also about the technology used in cricket that helps you see a perfectly ordered match on T.V? Here are a few things you might find new and interesting…

Every time the opposing team claims a LBW against India, you sit in front of the screen with your jaw dropped wide, hoping against hope. Right?! You can shut your jaw now, because there is a technology that helps the umpire in deciding his verdict in case of a doubt. It is called “Hot Spot”. Hot Spot is a system that determines whether the ball has hit the batsman’s bat or the pad. This technique employs two infrared cameras placed on either side of the ground. The work of the cameras is to sense and measure the friction generated due to heat when the ball hits the pad, the bat, the ground or the glove. Using a subtraction method, the camera generates a series of black and white negative images on a computer screen. This leads to the localising of the point of contact of the ball which is shown with discerning clarity on the screen. It also helps the audience in seeing the part of the bat that was hit by the ball. While a ball not hitting the middle portion of the bat tends to get deviated from the required path, a ball hitting the top edge goes flying in the air and if the lower edge comes into contact, the ball hits hard into the ground. So we get valuable information while analyzing the strokes. This mechanism was introduced in 2006 by channel 9 (the famous worldwide T.V. network of Australia) after the use of stump cameras and snickometer. Hot spot had a lot of advantages over the competing technology “snickometer”.

Commonly known as the snick, this device is a T.V. tool used to track the path of the ball by picking up and analysing the sounds from the pitch and stump microphones. This is used in slow motion television replays by commentators to determine the path of the ball. They listen and view the recorded waveform. From that, viewers can tell whether the ball hit a pad (a flat, dull display) or hit the bat (a lot sharper graphic) or just went pass (a flat line). However, it sometimes produces inconclusive and equivocal results and hence the hot spot dominates the snick for most of the T.V. channels today.

Next in row we have the “Hawk Eye”. Fans all over the world these days want to be involved in each and every aspect of the game. Hawk eye is one of the most energising things that happened to the players, fans and television viewers recently. It is a computer system used to track the path of the ball and display and record the most statistically accurate and perspicacious path as a moving image. This was first used in 2001 by channel 4 during a test match between England and Pakistan. Since then it has been used by a majority of television channels to determine the trajectory of the ball during its flight. The basic use of this method is in taking leg before wicket decisions wherein the path of the ball can be extended forward in between the batsman’s leg to see whether it would have hit the wicket or not. All hawk eye systems use the triangulation principle which utilises at least four cameras installed at varied positions on the field. It processes the video feeds with the help of high speed video processor and ball tracker. The data base of the system contains predefined models of the playing area and the game rules. In each frame sent from each camera, the system identifies the group of pixels corresponding to the image of the ball. It then calculates for each frame the 3D position of the ball by comparing its position on at least two of the physically separate cameras at the same instant in time. A succession of frames builds up a record of the path along which the ball has travelled. It also predicts the future flight path of the ball and where it will interact with any of the playing area features already programmed into the database. Then a graphic image of the ball path is generated. With this we get the real-time coverage of the bowling speed. We also see the complete analysis of the bowling style of a particular bowler at the end of six balls, such as delivery variations, bouncers and slow deliveries. The invention of this system has helped a lot in post match analysis by teams and coaches. Other than cricket, hawk eye is being used in tennis, snooker, and a lot of computer games as well.

So the next time you are watching your favourite sport, you would not just be looking at those coloured dots, you’ll know where they come from. Enjoy the game.

The writer is a correspondent of Youth Ki Awaaz.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

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A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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