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Book Review: Animal Farm by George Orwell

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Aarti Agarwal:

Glancing the cover and having flipped through a few pages, it appeared to me one of those children’s books talking about animals, farms, their fights etc. But as I entered deep and deeper into it, I realized that it was not just a ‘Tom and Jerry’ tale instead it had something serious to convey to its readers. George Orwell has used this allegory in a magnificent way to elucidate how communist utopia can convert itself into a totalitarian dystopia.

Story starts with the secret meetings of animals planning how to get rid of cruel tyranny of human beings. Such meetings were headed by Old Major who with his powerful oration and the song ‘Beasts of England’ moved the mob against Mr. Jones. This reminds me of Mahatma Gandhi and the national song ‘Vande-Mataram’ when India too was going through its struggle against the Britishers. Such meetings continued to be held until there was what the author named as ‘Battle of Cowshed’. This battle rendered the Manor farm in the possession of animals and human presence was completely ruled out. Now the animals were their own masters and had full freedom to decide their own path of progress. The first thing they did was to write a constitution for themselves which was known as ‘The Seven Commandments’. Manor farm was now renamed as Animal farm and it was honoured every Sunday mornings with flag hoisting and singing of ‘Beasts of England’.

Putting a farm under operation all on themselves was not a cake-walk. However under the capable supervision of pigs and unbeatable spirit of hard work of horses, they managed to produce even higher yield compared to earlier days. They used to refer to each other as comrades and worked in complete harmony. They learned self-reliance by devising simpler ways of harvest. But this egalitarian and communist framework was not sustainable! Pigs now started using ‘tactics’ to convince other animals that it was in their interest that pigs fed themselves on most of the apples and milk. One by one they amended every rule of seven commandments and interpreted it to their advantage. Making use of politically correct statements and poor literacy levels of other animals, they succeeded in converting the commandment ‘All animals are equal’ to ‘All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others’. Their leader Napolean had trained nine enormous dogs which gave them enough military power to pacify the crowd whenever there were any signs of protest. Animal farm ended up being a dictatorship of pigs, who were the brightest, and the most idle of all the animals.

Orwell has also criticized the church which is represented by Moses, a tame raven, who talks of ‘Sugarcandy Mountain’, a happy country in the sky where poor animals shall rest forever from their labours. It is interesting to observe that when old Major was first preaching revolutionary commission, Moses was sleeping in the barn, which satirizes the church being caught asleep by communism. He also mentions about the internal power struggle between Napolean and Snowball who war each other for the want of chair. They spread rumours and try to weaken the support for one-another using illegitimate means. And this is why politics is referred to as dirty by most of the youth today. It is the beauty of his writing style that such serious issues are also brought about in from of a fairy tale.

Orwell has covered almost all the aspects of how an economy functions and the impact of political framework on well-being of citizens. He has tried to emphasize on vitality of education by emanating the disadvantaged position of other animals being brainwashed by Squealor again and again. Squealor crams his speeches so full of vocabulary, jargon, and statistics that the animals are psychologically overwhelmed and, since they cannot understand what he is saying, tacitly consent to allowing the pigs to think for them. At times the justifications are so impressive that it was confusing for me too to judge whether or not pigs had malicious intentions! Orwell also talks about efficiency in production by modern techniques of division of labour and work-based compensation schemes. All these real life details are being narrated in such a fantastic style that keeps the reader hung up to the novel. His other novel 1984 also revolves around similar themes but animal farm attracts more readers. This book is equally appealing to children as well as adults. It is fun-read-for-pleasure book for children and for adults it is an easy-read but thought-provoking literature.

It is interesting to know that though the book was first published in 1945 and mainly attacked the Stalinism prevailing in then Russia, but it finds enough relevance in contemporary world. It rants the power corrupt political system by bringing about similar situations as we face in real world in a fancy symbolism. Orwell’s deep mistrust of political power comes shining through in this fable. ‘Animal Farm’ is a critical look at anyone who wants to keep us down ‘for our own good’. It does not have a happy ending rather it ends with a hair-raising warning to all its readers as to how devastating the state of affairs can be under a totalitarian government. It emphasizes on the often quoted Lord Acton’s saying “Power corrupts, but absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

It is often observed that even the one who has read very less has read at least this book. Though most of you would have already read this book but still I will insist read through it again and this time grasp the political satire in its entirety which you might have missed earlier thinking it to be a fairy tale. This short novel has a lot to say.

The writer is a Youth Ki Awaaz reporter. A student of Delhi University, she has recently completed her first year in B. Com (H) from SRCC.

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  1. Archit

    Nice review Arti! The flow in your writing is superb!

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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Find out more about the campaign here.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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