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Clean Development Mechanism Giving New Hope For Future

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By Richa Patil:

Rapid industrialization around the world during the twentieth century has led to excessive emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere, leading to change in climate, which poses the severest threat to world’s ecosystems and human civilization.

A protocol to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) known as Kyoto Protocol, was adopted during COP-3 (Conference of Parties III), in Dec 1997, which joins upon the developed country parties to reduce their GHG (Green House gases) emissions by a global average of 5.2% below the 1990 levels during 2008-12; it came to India in August, 2002 and came into force from 16th February, 2005.

Three mechanisms are involved in Kyoto protocol:

(1) Clean development (applicable only for developing countries)

(2) Joint Implementation

(3) Emissions trading

Out of the 3 Kyoto mechanism, CDM is the only for the developing world, which encourages cleaner development and bring various investments and technologies; which thus provides them an opportunity to adopt cleaner technologies and be paid for emission reductions. CDM is mainly meant for partnership between developed and developing countries for reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6) emission. India is emerging as a CDM Global Leader.

As a result of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon has become a tradable commodity with an associated value. One metric tonne of carbon dioxide emissions reduced through a CDM project, as certified by a designated entity, is known as a CER (Certified Emission Reduction), which can be traded.

CDM has to undergo through a project cycle involving 4 stages such as:

(1) Project Development

(2) Validation and Registration

(3) Project Monitoring

(4) Verification, Certification and Issuance of CERs.

Some examples of CDM projects are listed: Carbon-dioxide displacement through utilization of renewable energy for power generation and thermal energy, Carbon dioxide reduction through energy efficiency improvement, Carbon-dioxide sequestration through aforestation and reforestation, Landfill gas capture and energy generation, Hydrofluorocarbon decomposition.

The Project proponent makes a certain percentage of the CERs revenue every year (to a minimum of 2%) for Sustainable Development including society development and accordingly makes monitorable action plan for the same and includes it in the PCN & PDD (project design document). It is a technical report which explains emission reductions that have occurred. It is a reference document for all stake holders.

Government of India has shown an approach to set up all the institutional setups (like Designated National Authority — DNA) to facilitate maximum participation of Indian industries to get the benefits of CDM.

Sources of emission of greenhouse gases

As in this above image we can get a clear idea that emissions given out by industries is highest  so now it has become essential to take quick decisions to reduce it, it’s time to make immediate use of Clean development mechanism.

Carbon Dioxide emissions in Indian industrial sectors

Types of projects in CDM:

  1. Renewable energy
  2. Switching to alternate fuels
  3. Energy efficiency
  4. Waste management
  5. Industrial process
  6. Agriculture
  7. Carbon sequestration in forests

Some project status in India is as follows:

CDM projects registered at the CDM executive board are 506 in number, 1,492 CDM projects are at or after the validation stage; 1,592 CDM projects have been approved by India. Any CDM project before getting started it is necessary to undergo the CDM project cycle as mentioned above.

Presently India has the largest number of projects. Energy Infratech Private Limited (EIPL) is getting involved in to these projects to get the benefit of CDM. The list of Indian companies who are getting benefits of clean development mechanism seems to be endless, the latest addition being the Raigarh-based Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL). Tata power too got its first CDM project registered just recently.

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has become the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credit. United Nations has registered our metro under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which enables it to claim carbon credits. Under this project, DMRC will earn Certified Emission Reductions (CERs).The entire project was carried out with the support of Japan Carbon Finance which provided almost $95,000.

The idea of conserving the environment is gathering pace and such global concerns are being heeded and the corrective measures are being accepted and implemented; CDM rises to give new hope to the world of a cleaner and greener earth for the future.

You must be to comment.
  1. Jaideep

    Can I get the list of indian companies getting CDM benefit

  2. richa patil

    Jindal company(steel)
    Tata steel
    Gujarat Fluoro Chemicals
    Rashtriya chemicals and Fertilizers

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

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campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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