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Grounds On Which A Public Company Can Refuse To Register Transfer of Shares

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By Avani Bansal:

With the growth in the number of public companies in the Indian market, several anamolies have arisen regarding procedural aspects and the law regulators are finding it increasingly difficult to bridge the gap between the law and its practice. Hence I decided to highlight one such troublesome aspect which deals with refusal by companies to register shares. Though its more of a legalistic discussion, but the problem is one that can be faced by many of us while dealing in the share market. This write-up therefore summarises the grounds on which a public company can refuse to register shares indicating thereby that all other grounds cannot be held to be valid and therefore the person concerned can protest in case of such refusal by any public company.

The grounds on which a Public Company can refuse to register transfer of shares have not been specifically enumerated under the Companies Act. However the provision of Sec.111-A (2) of the Companies Act allows the Board of Directors to refuse to register transfer of shares “for sufficient cause”. It is now settled that the words “sufficient cause” should not be given a restricted meaning. The Company is not confined to merely examining whether the formalities required, such as signatures, stamp etc., have been fulfilled but it can refuse registration of transfer of shares if it finds that the transfer would involve violation of any other provision of the Companies Act, SEBI Act, or Regulations issued by SEBI, SICA or any other law in force. The Company however cannot act arbitrarily and will have to justify its action if called by the Company Law Board. It is to be noted that under the scheme of Sec 108-A to 108-D, the Central Govt while granting or declining to grant the approval for acquisition of shares, requires to examine various factors such as the impact of the acquisition on the management of the company, whether such an impact is desirable, the existing legal obligation of the company, whether such transfer itself would place the company in a situation to make a breach of certain existing contractual obligations of the company, thereby exposing the company to an action in law etc. The company can thus also refuse to register transfer of shares on these grounds.

Instances where refusal held to be justified: On the basis of combined reading of Regulation 23 of SEBI Takeover Regulations, 1997 and Sec 111-A (2) & (3), it is sufficient cause to reject transfer of shares which will have the impact of increasing the aggregate holding of the acquirer to more than 10 percent unless the provisions of Takeover Regulations are complied with as it would be violative of law. Similarly failing to disclose acquisition of shares beyond 5 % within 4 days of such acquisition, can be a valid ground for refusal. Transfer in favour of a person who is legally incapacitated to enter into a contract, like an alien enemy or an insane person is an illegal transaction and the company will be justified in refusing to register such transfer. Incorrect identity of the petitioner, allotments not supported by consideration, non-production of instrument of transfer, shares based on forged transfer deeds etc. are also valid grounds for refusal.

Instances where refusal held not to be justified: Refusal to register the shares in the name of a bank on grounds: 1) that the shares had been offered as collateral security but not pledged in favour of the bank 2) that the facilities availed of by the company from the bank were temporary in nature and consequently the shares did not require to be transferred in terms of the Reserve Bank Circular held not to be sufficient cause. Grounds such as share certificates not being delivered in full number, stamps not being cancelled are considered frivolous and therefore not sufficient.

Further, rectification of the register of the members was directed by the courts in the following cases: where there was an error, mistake or defect apparent on the face of the register of members, where the shares were not offered in terms of the Articles of the company, where the allotment was not made within reasonable time, where the allotment in violation of the Articles was made by two Directors in favour of their relatives without the sanction of the Board of Directors only for increasing the majority power of the Directors, where the Directors acted oppressively, capriciously, corruptly, or with mala fide intentions; where there was a refusal by the Company to transmit the shares without their being any power in the Articles; where payment of shares in kind was accepted without filing particulars in compliance with Sec. 75 (1) (b); where the joint holders sought to split the holding into individual holdings. This also gives an idea of the limitation on the  Company’s power of refusal for registering transfer of shares.

Thus though it is not possible to exhaustively  enumerate all the grounds on which a Company can refuse to register transfer of shares, the above  gives an idea as regards the validity of a refusal and is with the purpose of enhancing understanding regarding this aspect of law.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

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A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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