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Indian Constitution: A Comprehensive Analysis, Loopholes and More

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By Sumedha Upadhyay:

“We the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all citizens:

JUSTICE – social, economic and political

LIBERTY – of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship

EQUALITY- of status and opportunity

And to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of the NATION”

When we hear these familiar words, only one thing comes to our minds ‘the INDIAN constitution’. These are the very first words of the Preamble. The commencement of our constitution marked the beginning of an independent India. Drafted by the Drafting Committee headed by B.R. Ambedkar, this Sovereign document is the largest and the lengthiest constitution in the world with 395 articles and 12 schedules. The Constituent Assembly was believed to be the representation of the will of the people. The words ‘We the people’ signifies that it was a document given by the people, to the people and for the people.

Today, in the 21st century can we say that the real power to govern this country is vested in its people? But the question that often arises is, does the constitution in true terms express the will of the people or is has it just become a tool in the hands of some hungry politicians? Are the people of India in real terms assured of Justice, liberty, equality and fraternity? Is the common man today receiving justice? Does equality really prevail? Is Liberty being exercised by all today?

In the wake of the changing times in the Indian society a constitutional review is highly required. The constitution, though a very impressive piece, has failed in some respects. And in this article, I wish to express my opinion on the need of an overhaul in our constitution.

The preamble says that we are a Democratic Republic. What does democracy mean to all of us? To define it in a layman’s language Democracy means that the power is in the hands of the people to decide how and by whom the country is run. But today does the real power lie in the hands of the people as it was believed when the constitution was applied? It is no more ‘by and for the people’. Now it is more or less a board game and the players are the politicians with personal profits as the winning amount.

I also believe that our constitution is a borrowed constitution. When the drafting committee drafted it, they adopted a major part of it from the Government of India Act 1935 with few modifications here and there. Besides this, we have borrowed many provisions from various other constitutions of the world. The Parliamentary System has been taken from the British Constitution and Judicial Review & federalism from the US Constitution. We cannot say it’s a piece of novelty or originality. Many provisions need to be amended as they were adopted from the 1935 Act and maybe worked for that period; however in today’s time they have become obsolete.

One of the biggest flaws of our constitution is the never-ending length due to the tough language in which it has been drafted. Being the sovereign document of our country it should have been drafted in a language easily comprehendible by the citizens. But unfortunately the legal jargon used can hardly be deciphered by the common man. With that length, the parliament today will never get the time to modify and simplify it but I feel this is something which should have been kept in mind at the time of its commencement.

Securing justice to all — social, economical and political, is one of the chief aims of our constitution. But this has hardly been actually put into action. Our judicial system which is responsible to provide justice to each and every individual is one of our slowest systems. Today we have at least 10,000 cases per day pending for each judge of Tis Hazari court which is at least ten times higher than the prescribed number. Even the fast track courts take 3-4 years to solve cases; the term ‘fast track court’ thus fails the purpose. As we all know it took 63 years for the judiciary to come out with the historical judgment of Ayodhya Babri case. Criminal cases like that of Jessica Lal, Priyadarshini Mattoo, Nitish Katara case are among the many examples of delayed justice. Besides the procedure to approach the courts is so tedious that a poor farmer ends up selling his land, the only source of his livelihood, to pay so that he can get his rights back. The guidelines issued in the landmark judgment of D K Basu v. State of West Bengal in order to bring about prison reforms are rarely followed. Thousands of under-trial prisoners are still in jail, living in inhuman conditions and are being denied basic rights of living.

The fundamental rights under part III of our constitution too need to include many of those rights that have developed over a history of various judicial pronouncements. These rights though not really stated in part III have been recognized as fundamental in nature and are better known as ‘implied fundamental rights’. Right to food, right to privacy, right to livelihood, right to clean potable drinking water, right to fresh and clean environment, right to be silent, right to speedy justice etc. These rights need to be added in chapter III as they are equally important in today’s time for every Indian.

At the same time I feel that the framers of out constitution gave more importance to fundamental rights than to the fundamental duties. Rights and duties are the two sides of the same coin. A right given to one person prevents another person from violating it thereby imposing a duty on him. Today everyone only wants to enjoy the benefits of the rights and no one lays importance on fulfilling their duties towards the society, country, environment and other human beings.

As far as the directive principles of the state policy are concerned, they too are not satisfactory since no strict implementation is precticed. These are those principles which the state has to keep in mind while making any policies or laws. For example, the equal distribution of material resources is to prevent resources from being concentrated in one or fewer hands. But in reality we have at least 60% of the population still living below the poverty line.

A special provision out to be made regarding population control. In a developing nation like India it is very important to have population control. In the current situation the supply of everything is too low in comparison to the steep increase in demand. Landmass remains the same but the inhabitants are increasing at a very fast pace.

Right to education needs to be given maximum importance. Even though compulsory education has been enforced till the age of 14, majority of Indians remain uneducated. Private schools are too expensive for a poor man to educate his child, and the government schools’ standards are deteriorating year by year. Government schools, the only source of almost-free education to all the children, need to be renovated to provide a healthier environment and teachers with better qualifications so that even a family belonging to the middle class or upper class does not hesitate in sending their children to a government school.

Kelson, a famous jurist said that every piece of legislation derives its validity from the “Grundnorm”. According to him the Grundnorm is that sovereign document from which all other legislations derive their validity. Likewise is the situation in India where our Grundnorm is the constitution of India where all legislation country too derives validity from the constitution. Anything going against a provision can be challenged in the court. But when our Grundnorm itself is flawed then how will any legislation be fit for the needs of the present society.

The section 376 of the Indian Penal Code, which deals with the subject of rape, requires many changes. As per the IPC, “rape” has been categorized into different kinds such as Marital rape, Custodial rape, Gang rape etc. Marital rape refers to a rape where the husband commits a rape on his wife & custodial rape occurs in special circumstances by a public servant. I strongly believe any sexual intercourse without a woman’s consent amounts to rape then why is there a need to categorize it? Rape in itself is most heinous of the crimes whether committed by the husband, a public servant or a stranger. I think instead of having different punishments for different kinds of rape there should be a uniform punishment.

The Evidence Act requires major amendment in the definition clause of “evidence”. Till date the act only mentions two kinds of evidences: oral or documentary. With the advancement of technology today we have lie detector tests, DNA proficiency tests, brain mapping and various other kinds of tests that help in extracting the truth out of the offender. The recent examples of the court relying upon these tests are Kasab’s case and Arushi Murder case. These tests do not have any validity in the court of law as they amount to self incrimination in light of Article 20 of our constitution. If they can help some innocent get justice then why not recognize them as evidence?

The Land Acquisition Act 1894 requires major changes as it still contains portions which are redundant in today’s times. There is a need to redefine the term ‘public purpose’ for which the State can acquire land in return of some compensation. With every judicial pronouncement the court includes something new which falls within the limits of public purpose. There are times when the government acts arbitrary and in the name of ‘public purpose’ acquires the land for profits. Thus in all the judicial pronouncements related to Land Acquisition Act there is a need to include all those purposes which are purely in the interest of public.

The Water (prevention and control) Pollution Act has some major defects. With majority of our rivers drying up and the sorry state of Yamuna shows the incompetence of the Act in the present times. The act still talks about wells and streams as being the sources of water. Wells and streams were the sources of water in ancient times but now we have rivers, lakes, ponds, artificial water bodies which have been totally excluded from the purview of this Act. Shockingly this act does not even define what a ‘water pollutant’ is. Nor does water table levels and potable water etc. find any place in the Act. Whatever amendments have taken place in this act have only been with respect to the Environment Protection Act. Thus the act is a complete failure in itself.

These are only a few glaring examples of some of our legislations that lack competency and are ineffective in today’s fast moving world. There are many many more. But what is important is that these reforms should start immediately. Running away from these problems will only make them pile on one another and make them even bigger. India is still a developing nation and if we have to shift from the agrarian economy we are today then it is time that we adopt the reformative approach and make the legislations more dynamic in nature. We need more participation of the citizens in bringing about these changes instead of leaving the change to the selfish politicians, some of whom can barely claim to be educated. All this is necessary because we need a clearer picture of our future.

I would like to end by saying-

“In today already walks tomorrow. Because the future is much like the present, only longer”

The writer is a Law Student at the Amity Law School, IP University.

You must be to comment.
  1. Amar Tejaswi

    Nice points you mentioned here. But I wish you could suggest ways to fill these holes. Is a constitutional review the only way? But even if the constitution is reviewed, I least expect sweeping changes. But to synchronize the constitution with the current time, it needs large-scale changes.

    1. sumedha

      Amar your question is a very valid and an often asked question. in my opinion constitutional review is not the only tool to bring about changes but yes a very important one. The problem that lies with contitutional review is that its a slower process it will take years to bring about a change in the society. As you are aware we have a never ending number of legislations in our country, the problem lies that major number of enactements were passed long time backbefore or after the commencement of the constitution and were suitable for that time which have now become redundant in light of today’s times. Now the legislature and the judiciary are already overburduned thus they have no time to look into the required amendments. The changes needed in the constitution cannot be brought about so easily as our amednment procedure is not so flexible. In my view all the redundant enactments which have been a failiure for instance the water act, the delhi rent control act etc should be done away with. And as far as the future is concerned, a process of filteration should be brought about int he judiciary and legislature. Politicians who do not have any knowledge about laws or specialised subjects are sitting int he legislatures making laws. Thus higher eligibility standards should be laid down. Anti corruption laws should be strengthened further.More number of fas track courts should be made to ease out the pressure of the pending cases. Lastly and most imporatanly gudelines laid down in various landmark judgments should be followed rather than being treated as mere reccommendations.Once all this is done things wi fal into place on their own. Other than this there are many other ways to bring about changes in our society. Wel i hope i answered your question though not convincing enough but this is my current view point. thanks n regards

    2. Rajv kumar singh

      as mentioned by many reader’s – That it is not Constitution has failed but it is we failed the Constitution.. u have mentioned that – I strongly believe any sexual intercourse without a woman’s consent amounts to rape,,, id a women has sex with a man then later she changes her mind that oh did not wanted to have sex with this person,,, i was drunk,, i was out of mind ,, so and so,,, then according to your analysis that person should go to jail, right. The kind of suggestions your have proposed,, would only lead us to anarchy and nothing else. Your seem to be gender biased only thinking from female perspective. and secondly if the constitution has borrowed the good facts from the same of other countries then what is wrong in that. By mentioning this point you just want to imply that you are more intelligent then Mr. Ambedkar you can write a better constitution than him,, Then I challenge you,, If your father is politician you really believe in your cause than draft a better constitution than current version and propose with the help your father. If you are correct then it will be implemented and we will start saying you as creator or our constitution. On one side you are saying its borrowed, but first think what has been borrowed. the best things around the world. But still we are not best. If parents tells us to walk on right path and gives us moral teachings, and if we are not following that then whom you will blame , parent or the child?

    3. swati vyas

      ya…i totally agree on the point that constitution is not a failure…………as the writer of this article said that the Constitution of India starts from” WE THE PEOPLE “,then my friends we the people only failed ,and not the constitution.secondly,the politicians on whom allegations made are absolutely justified,but criticizing them is not the solution,rather we should think for a while that WHO EXACTLY ARE THE POLITICIANS???????………answer to this is that .they are among them itself which comprises of the term ” WE THE PEOPLE”.So friends I strongly at the same time humbly request and suggest all of of you who commented and also who wrote this eye opening article ,to please to make our team so that we can prepare a article which includes some really practical suggestions which we can pass on to our LAW COMMISSION ,so that we all can become a part of what we call-WE THE PEOPLE to help in making our constitution a great success even if it is a failure, Because it is always said that “BETTER BE LATE THAN NEVER” …….I hope friends that i can get your help in this,please contact if you really want.I AM sorry if my comment hurt any one!!!!!

  2. Gitanjali Goel

    I am of the opinion that..firstly if politicians are playing their board game
    its we the people of India who r giving them a chance again n again to make
    us puppets in their hands..how many of us do go to the polling booths to exercise our right to vote or how many of us think our careers in politics??? everyone
    is busy in making hay while the sunshines….we who call ourselves “educated “are all sitting at one side at making comments bt no ones wants to jump into it..Secondly, you have mentioned about the fact that our constitution is borrowed. Yes, there aint any doubt that our Constitution is borrowed bt my friend have you thought why did the framers have to put in so much effort??
    If u wud hv read legal history u wudnt hv put such a point..anyways the framers
    had referred the Constitution of so many countries so that they could collect the best from all…I fail to understand on one side u are saying that the prob with our Constitution is that its the lengthiest and on the other side u r talking about adding the “implied fundamental rights..” wouldn’t they increase the length??Our government has already passed RTE.Coming to the Evidence Act amendments have been made incorporating electronic information too.We have incorporated fair trial that is why nobody can be compelled to give evidence against himself.

    I feel that instead of cribbing about sorry state of affairs and generating discontentment among the youth one should act mention points where one can give remedies to cover up the flaws in the present scenario…Information regarding Right to information Act,PIL,legal aid etc should be given..Everyone should be informed about the latest judgments and legal developments…We all should take steps to make a better India tomorrow…I would conclude by saying..

    “Hum chalte gaye aur carvan banta gaya..”

  3. sumedha

    Gitanjali hi, every one has a right to have their own opinions and there is nothing wrong about it. I definitely respect your opinion and view points however would like to reply to a certain number of doubts raised by you in the comment. Firstly I think you haven’t understood the meaning of the title of my article, my article is solely about the loopholes in our constitution and the need of an over haul which in today’s time is the immediate need. Being a law student I do know the positives of our constitution and it is one of the best sovereign documents that have been written till now in the history. But in my article I was dealing with the loopholes and the necessary changes that have to brought about it is a mere opinion. So please give consideration to that.
    Secondly about the politicians playing the board game. Indeed they are playing it, and I don think I need to give you instances or proves of it. I’d infact say it has become a fact of our political structure in today’s time. Now as far as the people of this country are concerned. Yes we are the ones who choose our own politicians..but tell me something, the people can only choose out of the choices available to them, do they have a choice of boycotting themselves from voting absolutely? No, finally in the end they have to choose ultimately from someone or the other. The procedure of selecting the candidates itself is so corrupted that people contesting as candidates are themselves sitting in the parliamentary boards. The selection process is in the hands of the parties, not the citizens. So people just try to choose the better out of the already worse. Someone has to come to power. This is not the US federal system where the major power directly vests in the hands of the citizens. Whereas in India on the face of it appears that it vests in our hands but in reality the truth is something else. I know it because I belong to a political family, my father is a politician and personally I don’t like the current state of political structure but I have gone and voted every time even if I didn’t like the candidate why? Because someone has to come to power to govern the state.
    No as far as voting is concerned. You are right in saying that a very little portion of our population goes to the polling booths. Basically it’s the youth which has to infuse this zest in the present as well as the future generations to go to vote. They have lost their trust in the political system because they do not connect with them. We need dynamic leaders who are educated or atleast know how sing the national anthem of their country. So they choose to stay out of it and they don’t feel that they possess a duty on their part to carry out decision making in our country. And it is only in the metropolitan cities where people differ from voting , in the rural areas people are still very active. They are happier staying away from it. I assure you I vote and I encourage everyone around me to vote. And though not a major chunk but there are people who want to make their careers in politics, I myself would not mind it and I have seen youthful people around me who sincerely want to become a part of it. But you see, our political society has reached that level where the corruption is irreparable. Hence many hesitate.
    Thirdly, about the borrowing nature of our constitution, yes we have taken many features from other countries to make it the best document. But I would like you to go into the legal history and with special emphasis on the government of india act 1935. You would realize that almost all provisions are more or less the same which were relevant for that period of time but requires change. So I would advise you to please go through the 1935 act and the constitutional provisions. It should have been a piece of novelty keeping in mind the future developments of the society rather than incorporation older provisions.
    As far as the length is considered, those implied on one hand should be included and on the other hand the redundant portions should be deleted which would balance it out. These implied fundamental rights need recognition and you cant have another enactment for that person.
    Regarding the evidence act, there has been only inclusion of evidences such as electronic diaries and nothing in relation to forensic sciences such as DNA profiling, DNA testing, brain mapping or lie detector tests have been included which are greatly relied upon in all criminal cases thus position remains vague.. If they have been please enlighten me regarding those provisions I ‘d be glad.
    We need to over come the flaws in order to have a better legislation and so that we do not add futher flaws.
    Thank you.

  4. George Varuggheese

    We are a Society called Godimages Good Governance Society registered in 2006.
    We are launching people’s club for good governance to be placed in all people’s constituencies like the MLA constituency in every State.
    We have published a book titled : ‘The Constitution of India: A Design for Good Governance & Successful Living.
    Please visit our site and get back to us if you are interested in pursuing your vision.
    I was impressed by your analysis but there is more to it than what you have perceived to be the reason for the chaos in this country.
    You have to take the Preamble as the Mission Statements of the Republic of India
    and then make a performance audit.
    Our book will give a whole new vista of area to be covered.
    With best wishes to your law pursuit,
    G.v.
    President, Godimages Good Governance Society
    Delhi 28.6.2011

  5. Ambrish Shrivastava

    I also have a question, why no nay directive or rules and regulations for politicians in Indian constitution, while there are lots about officers, bureaucrats, judges and others, even soldiers and civilians.

  6. Shailesh

    the article is showing height of immaturity of knowledge on Constitution, being a law student it does not guarantee that you are have an expertise on Constitution of India, as you said it is borrowed it is derogatory a remark, Indian Constitution is case of “sui generis”(thing of its own kind) was the remark given by Professor Alexandrowicz, as you are suggesting a constitution review so madame i want tell you that when the Constitution of India was passed on 24th November 1949,Dr. B.R Ambedkar gave a historical speech(refer http://youtu.be/qxvQjAJYrVg) which said that no constitution is in itself good or bad it more depends on the people who will implement the constitution so it is not the constitution has failed but it is we who have not obeyed it properly how many of us obey the Preamble to the Constitution in real life, so we ourselves are wrong and do not want to change from old age social orders so we make remarks on Constitution that it needs review, as holy book Geeta does not guarantee that every person who will read it will follow true path, so than you can ask for review of Geeta also, why it is considers as absolute, so madame have faith in constitution it is as strong that when attempts were made by Indira Gandhi during emergency to change it for her personal benefit it was resilient and Indira Gandhi faced the results in next election of 1977 a major loss, so every time Constitution is able to hold itself and our nation from breaking into anarchy or monarchy, it is first our responsibility to follow it, but by not following it and asking for a change then u cannot land anywhere, and once a great attempt was made to review a constitution in 2001 by BJP led NDA government, but thanks to the President K.R. Narayanan who saved this blunderto happen and a gave a great remark “That it is not Constitution has failed but it is we failed the Constitution” ( refer, http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl1803/18031200.htm, http://www.mail-archive.com/national-forum-of-india@yahoogroups.co.in/msg02637.html), fascist RSS are always against Constitution because of sick Hindutava ideology and i doubt not doubt that you are also the victim of same ideology, so please i request you not to publish these type of articles to make a sense of chaos on Constitution because most of the youth today is busy with engg. and medical field and they do not have much knowledge on Constitution, to give a comment on your caste which represents your thoughts which have created this type of notion it is nothing new for me, so trying to keep this type of article in your notebook only

    1. virtual

      I really like to thank Mr Shailesh for such a great counter reply to immature article by Upadhyay.

      its not the constitution which has failed us, but we have failed the constitution.

      We have to remember always the implementation of constitution was in the
      hands of upper caste Hindu beurocrats and political leaders from its
      inception who is initially against the principles of Equality and Democracy,
      they will be very happy if some one says ” Constitutions is failed to remove
      poverty and illetaracy in this country ” and on that basis they will try to
      Amend it according to their theory of Akhand bharath to hinduise this
      country. BJP tried for it and and failed by the opposition from many
      democratic groups.

      “The question is, can we presume such a diffusion of constitutional morality? Constitutional morality
      is not a natural sentiment. It has to be cultivated. We must realise that
      our people have yet to learn it. Democracy in India is only a top dressing
      on an Indian soil which is essentially undemocratic.”

    2. Neil

      You said borrowed constitution is derogatory a remark, Indian Constitution is case of “sui generis” then what do you make of following similarities…

      British Constitution

      Parliamentary form of government

      The idea of single citizenship

      The idea of the Rule of law

      Institution of Speaker and his role

      Lawmaking procedure

      Procedure established by Law u/a 13

      United States Constitution

      Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is similar to the
      United States Bill of Rights

      Federal structure of government

      Power of Judicial Review and independence of the judiciary

      President as supreme commander of armed forces u/a 52

      Due process of law u/a 13

      Irish Constitution

      Constitutional enunciation of the directive principles of
      state policy

      French Constitution

      Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity

      Canadian Constitution

      A quasi-federal form of government (a federal system with a
      strong central government)

      The idea of Residual Powers

      Australian Constitution

      Freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between
      the states

      Power of the national legislature to make laws for
      implementing treaties, even on matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction

      Japanese Constitution

      Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A

      Weimar Constitution

      Emergency Provision u/a 356

      I mean have you even looked up the constitution…

  7. sam

    a well written article

  8. Vishwajit

    The very good article sharing important provision in land acqisition act, IPC etc ,I think in case of land acquisition act,it was framed with the thougt that the govt always takes decision in public interest and it was almost saw for some years after framing constitution and its enforcement.But at present moment the condition is exactly opposite as govt ignore sufficient compensation then it is fault of govt and not of constitution as many govt takes important decision and made good work even though stay in same provisions so you must remember the historical speech of B.R. Ambedkar during acceptance that no every costitution is good or bad,it depends on people who implementing it.How many people follows each and every provision in preamble?So blaming to great indian constitution which is most detailed written constitution in the world and accepted by many countries who turns into democratic nation to hiding mistakes made by ourselves in order to enforce it is not fair and rational.

  9. ganguly

    only ignorant idiots can write such articles……….

  10. Naveen

    The only answer for the article is :
    In India constitution is civilized but not the people who are suppose to implement it.

    Our constitution is not rig veda which cannot be changed but its crafted so well by Dr. Ambedkar that amendments could be made based on the requirement of the nation, however changing the constitution out of frustration that this has not worked so we would do that is totally imbecile………To even blame the constitution lets first try to implement it properly which has not been done…….its not been done because we are still struck with 2000 year old constitution called manusmriti which has deprived people of their human thinking on how to live together under liberty, equality and fraternity……..

  11. swati vyas

    Hi sumedha……….i commented on the article plzzzz,n try to contact if u like my suggestions.

  12. swati vyas

    friends i need your support if you all desire or wish to write your suggestions to our law commissions in order to make such changes which our supreme lex require.If anybody is interested contact me.

  13. Sanjay Paul

    MR. Sailesh is adamant with our constitution so he is comparing it with the holy book GEETA .. I just wana ask MR. Sailesh if he has gone through the constitution? n if YES .. Can he recall those 395 articles? if “yes:” then m sure he is a super human n if “no” than my question is how MR. Sailesh can expect a common citizen can abide by those rules which one cant remember … The American Constitution contains only 7 Articles … easy for every Americans to recall those n also to abide by those .. so tht canot be expected from the Indians to abide by the World’s largest constitution ….

    “Old wine in a new bottle” this theory does not apply to all ..

    we need to review our constitution and make it in accordance wid the current situation n fast track solutions to today’s economic,social n democratic problems ..
    we need the youth to rise up n form a new constituent assembly to draft a new constitution for our country ,, a indigenous built CONSTITUTION of INDIA ….. rather than a bags of borrowings …

  14. Dr.B.V.Muralidhar

    Ur cooments are worth taking note of. But imagine Ambedkar and the Constituent Assembly was the best at that time and they did a decent job taking into consideration the situation…Very easy to comment or criticise now but better we put ourselves in their shoes. What they gave is good, but the politicians and majortiy people hav emade a mess of the Constitution for their own selfish ends. So dont try to see what is happening today in India is because of the document… We have become the most inefficient people to chose our representatives as we love our caste, region, religion etc etc and not the country. And everyone is a part of the mess now.

  15. Satyajay Mandal

    Understanding Our Criminal Justice System
    1. When someone violates the laws, we immediately inform :- a. Neighbours b. Relative c. Judge d. Police Ans: (d)2. Police generally do :- a. File report b. Arrest a person c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (c)3. An accused person is decided by :- a. Police b. Court c. Person himself d. All of these Ans: (b)4. Every person has a fundamental Right to be defended by a lawyer under the act ___________. a. Act 42 b. Act 67 c. Act 45 d. Act 22 Ans: (d)5. Constitution places a duty on the state to provide a lawyer to any citizen who is unable to engage one due to poverty or other disability. a. Act 39 b. Act 22 c. Act 43 d. Act 67 Ans: (a)6. Key players of criminal justice system are :- a. Police & public prosecutor b. Defence lawyer & Judge c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (c)7. Police file a charge sheet in the court & _________ a. If police arrest a person b. If a person is suspected for anything c. If a person commit a crime d. If investigation proved the person is accused. Ans: (d)8. Who decided the guilty or innocence of victim? a. Judge b. Police c. Neighbor d. None of these Ans: (a)9. Right not to be ill treated or tortured during arrest or in custody written under :- a. Act 22 b. Act 52 c. Act 43 d. Act 67 Ans: (a)10. Act 22 contains :- a. police has the Right to arrest any person without compliant b. A boy under 15 years of age & women can’t be used as evidence against the accused c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (b)11. D. K. Basu guideline include :- a. The police official should wear, accurate & visible name tags with their identifications b. A memo of arrest should be prepared at the time of arrest c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (c)12. FIR means :- a. Formal Identification report b. first information report c. First Indian region d. All of these Ans: (b)13. Public prosecutor is :- a. One who represents the interests of state b. One who investigate crime c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (a)14. What is the role of Judge? a. Decide whether accused person is guilty or innocent b. May send the person to jail c. May impose a fine or both d. All of these Ans: (d)15. What is a fair trial? a. The trail in the absence of accused b. The trail in the presence of accused c. Judge should not be there for judgment d. All of these Ans: (b)16. What is the best way to chose judges? a. Nominating by legislature b. by Executive c. By political parties d. By people Ans: (d)17. The chief justice get retired at the age of :- a. 56 years b. 40 years c. 58 years d. 75 years Ans: (d)18. ‘Rule of law’ was defined by :- a. Dyasi b. Glade stone c. Laski d. Glade stone Ans: (a)19. The Indian judiciary consists of a _________ for entire nation. a. High Court b. Supreme Court c. District Court d. All of these Ans: (b)20. Marshal judge is related with :- a. Constitutional law b. international law c. Public law d. Rule of law Ans: (a)21. When one see violating the law, one immediately think of informing the __________. a. Police b. Judge c. Lawyer d. None of these Ans: (a)22. According to _________ every individual charged of a crime has to be given fair trial. a. law b. Constitution c. Police d. Judge Ans: (b)23. The judges of Supreme court are appointed by :- a. prime minister b. Vice president c. Ministers of council d. President Ans: (d)24. Judiciary of India is :- a. Less powerful than that of USA b. More powerful than that of USA c. Equal powerful than that of USA d. None of these Ans: (a)25. Which is the highest court of appeal in civil & criminal cases? a. District court b. Supreme Court c. High court d. All of these Ans: (b)26. Independence of judiciary means :- a. It is not under control of legislature or the executive b. It is under control of president c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (a)27. The judges of Supreme courts and High courts are appointed by a. M. P. b. Prime minister c. M. L. A. d. President Ans: (d)28. How many judges are removed by an ‘Impeachment motion’? a. Two b. Three c. Zero d. Seven Ans: (c)29. The power & independence of the Indian Judiciary allow to act as the guardian of the :- a. Fundamental duties b. Directive principles of state policy c. Moral duty d. Fundamental Rights Ans: (d)30. What is Public Interest Litigation? a. Public is important than law b. Nominate the leaders c. Any one can approach to courts if public interest is hurt by the actions of government d. All of these Ans: (c)31. Define the term ”SI”. a. International System b. System in c. Sign in d. Sub – Inspector Ans: (d)32. Which one of the following is an important function of police? a. To arrest the person on complaint b. To arrest the neighbour of thief c. To punish the accused d. To send him to jail Ans: (a)33. An investigation include :- a. Statement of Witness b. statement of bill c. Statement of Judge d. All of these Ans: (a)34. The guidelines for the police investigation are laid down by :- a. Supreme Court b. Judge b. Constitution d. None of these Ans: (a)35. Arrested person should be protested before a magistrate with in 24 hours of arrest comes under a. Act 42 b. Act 51 c. Act 56 d. Act 22 Ans: (d)36. Define the first step of investigation into crime. a. charge Sheet b. FIR c. Investigation d. Punishment Ans: (b)37. FIR usually mentioned :- a. Date b. Time & place c. Detail the basic facts & descriptions of event d. All of these Ans: (d)38. FIR report is signed by :- a. Judge b. Complainant c. Police d. Lawyer Ans: (b)39. All of these criminal offences are regarded as _________. a. Public Right b. Livelihood Right c. Personal Right d. Public wrong Ans: (d)40. The prosecutor must conduct the prosecution on the behalf of the ______. a. State b. Centre c. state & centre d. All of these Ans: (a)41. If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounced the _________. a. Reward b. Award c. prosecution d. Sentence Ans: (d)42. ”Right of law” includes :- a. every person has right to live. b. All of these person’s life can be taken away only by following a reasonable & just procedure. c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (c)43. Public prosecutor function are :- a. Cross examine the Victim b. Argue the case of Victim c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (d)44. Which one of the following is a function of judge? a. Investigation b. Arrest the accused c. Cross examination d. Pass the sentence Ans: (b)45. Which one of the following is a function of police? a. Conduct a fair trail b. meet the accused person c. Arrest the person d. All of these Ans: (c)46. Which one of the following is a function of Defence lawyer? a. Investigation b. Arrest the accused c. Cross examination d. Pass the sentence Ans: (c)47. Define the term ‘Impartial’ a. Pass a judgment b. the act of being fair & not favoring one side over other c. Fair trail d. None of these Ans: (b)48. Define the term ”Offence” a. Any act that the law defines to be a crime b. Fair trail c. Passing a judgment d. Accused will put in jail Ans: (a)49. All persons are equal before _____. a. Judge b. Minister c. police d. Law Ans: (d)50. Detention means :- a. Praise given by the police b. act of being kept in illegal custody by the police c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans: (b)

    Secularism, Political Science
    1. British come to India as :- a. Social reformer b. Inventor c. As a ruler d. As a traders Ans : (d)2. How many languages are accepted in Indian constitution? a. 22 b. 28 c. 15 d. 20 Ans : (a)3. Bi-Hinduism started in the year a. 1870 b. 1878 c. 1865 d. 1861 Ans : (b)4. Which one of the following is a fundamental right? a. Right to freedom of religion b. Right to property c. Right to work d. All of these Ans : (a)5. The right provided by constitution are called a. Governmental Right b. Optional Right c. Economic Right d. Fundamental Right Ans : (d)6. In which year Bengal was divided into two parts? a. 1905 b. 1910 c. 1915 d. 1920 Ans : (a)7. Bengal was divided as a result of:- a. Do or die b. Divide & rule c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b) 8. Who was the first governor general of independent India? a. Dr. Rajendra Prasad b. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan c. Mahatma Gandhi d. Mount Batan Ans : (d)9. Who was nominated as a permanent member of constitutional assembly? a. Dr. Rajender Parsad b. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan c. Mahatma Gandhi d. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Ans : (d)10. Muslim league demand for ________ constitutional assembly a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 Ans : (b)11. Constitution was made in a. 2 years 11 months 18 days b. 1 years 11 months 18 days c. 3 years 11 months 18 days d. None of these Ans : (c)12. Secularism is added in constitution by the amendment of :- a. 42th b. 62th c. 47th d. 73th Ans : (a)13. After 42th amendment the first line of Indian preamble is ”we people of India _______ a. Sovereign b. Secularism c. Democratic d. All of these Ans : (d)14. Secularism means- a. State is against to all religious b. State accept only one religion c. State will not give any special concern with any religion d. None of these Ans : (c)15. Right to freedom of religion is written in a. Act 25 – 29 b. Act 14 – 18 c. Act 56 d. Act 51 1 Ans : (a)6. According to act 28, which type of education is resisted in educational institution? a. Education of specific religion b. Navy Education c. Moral Education d. Sex Education Ans : (a)17. On the basis of _________ right to freedom of religion can be resisted? a. Public arrangement b. Morality c. Health d. All of these Ans : (d)18. In which country Non-Muslim are not allowed? a. USA b. Saudi Arabia c. India d. None of these Ans : (b)19. The most important aspect of secularism is its ________ of religion from state a. Include b. Separation c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b)20. Who supports Untouchability? a. Hindu b. Muslim c. Christian d. All of these Ans : (a)21. How many language are mentioned in the 8th schedule a. 14 b. 15 c. 13 d. 22 Ans : (d)22. Which of the following are included in right to freedom of religion? a. Right to freedom of conscience b. Freedom against forced religious instructions c. Practice & propagation of religion d. All of these Ans : (d)23. Non-interference means:- a. Respect the sentiments of all religion b. Respect only one religion c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (a)24. History provides many examples of discrimination, exclusion and persecution on the ground of a. Exclusion b. Religion c. Law d. Caste Ans : (b)25. Can there be different views with in the same religion? a. yes b. No c. Can’t say d. may be Ans : (a)26. Is India a secularism country? a. yes b. No c. Can’t say d. may be Ans : (a)27. Separation of same religion from the state in democratic societies is because of- a. To interrupt religious teaching b. To protect the freedom of individual exit from their religion c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b)28. India constitution mandates that Indian state is a. Socialist b. Secular c. Tyranny d. None of these Ans : (c)29. The Indian state is a. Ruled by the religious group b. Supports one religion c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (a)30. Indian constitution grants the right to freedom of religious communities to set up their own school & colleges a. Yes b. no c. Can’t Say d. None of these Ans : (b)31. Most children in govt. schools have to begin their school day reciting the ‘pledge of allegiance”. The children are of:- a. USA b. Brazil c. New Zealand d. None of these Ans : (a)32. In USA, separation between state & religion means a. Prohibition free exercise of religion b. Respect an religion c. Neither the state nor the religion can interfere in affair of one another d. None of these Ans : (c)33. France passed a law banning students from wearing any conspicuous religious signs or symbols in year a. Feb 2004 b. Jan 2007 c. Dec 2006 d. Dec 2007 Ans : (a)34. France had faced a shortage of workers in year:- a. 1972 b. 1960 c. 1970 d. 1947 Ans : (b)35. ‘Id’ is a festival of a. Muslim b. Hindu c. Sikh d. None of these Ans : (a)36. Coercion means:- a. Freedom of speech b. Freedom of religion c. Force someone to do something d. All of these Ans : (c)37. There are maximum number of a. Hindu b. Muslim c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b)38. Democracy means:- a. Rule of people b. Rule of minister c. Rule of speaker d. All of these Ans : (a)39. Who is the present prime minister of India? a. Mahatma Gandhi b. Indra Gandhi c. Manmohan Singh d. Sonia Gandhi Ans : (c)40. Is castism should be there? a. Yes b. No c. Can’t say d. may be Ans : (b)41. Christian belongs to which religion a. Hindu b. Muslim c. Sikh d. Christian Ans : (d)42. Scared book of Muslim is:- a. Ved b. Kuran c. Namaj d. All of these Ans : (b)43. Where the Hindu worship their God? a. Temple b. Masjid c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (a)44. India is a :- a. Religion based country b. Religion free country c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b) 45. Our unity lines in our a. Diversity b. Castism c. Religious d. None of these Ans : (a)46. Is there provision of Indian secularism in constitution a. No b. Yes c. Can’t say d. May be Ans : (b)47. Wearing a _______ is central to a Sikh’s religious practice a. Pugri b. suit c. Having Bike d. All of these Ans : (a)48. India constitution guarantees ______to a. Fundamental duty b. Fundamental right c. Both (1) & (2) d. None of these Ans : (b)49. Separation of religion from the state means a. Socialism b. Democracy c. Secularism d. All of these Ans : (c)50. There are mainly four religion practiced in India, they are a. Arabic b. Christian c. Jainism d. Buddhism Ans : (b)

    Judiciary, Political Science
    1. Law apply equally to all ___ a. Animals b. Ministers c. M.L.A’s d. Persons Ans : (a)2. We have judicial system to :- a. To provide freedom b. To provide food c. To enforce the rule law d. None of these Ans : (c)3. Judiciary system provide mechanism for resolving disputes between ______ a. Citizens b. Citizens & government c. Two state government d. All of these Ans : (d)4. Article 21 includes :- a. Right against Exploration b. Right to speech c. Right to health d. Right to worship Ans : (c)5. The Supreme court was established on :- a. 1950 b. 1949 c, 1962 d. 1980 Ans : (a)6. When India did become Republic? a. 1947 b. 1950 c. 1965 d. 1976 Ans : (b)7. How many courts are there at apex level? a. Three b. Two c. None d. One Ans : (d)8. How many levels of court are there in India? a. Three b. Two c. None d. One Ans : (d)9. Which court is at apex level? a. High court b. District court c. lower court d. Supreme Court Ans : (d)10. Each state districts is presided over by :- a. Subordinate b. District court c. Judiciary d. None of these Ans : (b)11. Each state has ______ a. Judiciary b. Supreme Court c. High court d. All of these Ans : (c)12. Supreme court is located at :- a. Chandigarh b. J & K c. Punjab d. New Delhi Ans : (d)13. Who presided the Supreme Court? a. Subordinate b. District court c. Chief justice d. All of these Ans : (c)14. In which year High Courts was first established? a. 1862 b. 1860 c. 1972 d. 1980 Ans : (a)15. High Courts were first established in which of the three presidency cities? a. Punjab, Chandigarh, Madras b. J & K, U. P., Haryana c. Madras, Tamil naidu, Punjab d. Calcutta, Bombay & Madras Ans : (d)16. The High Court of Delhi came up in ________ a. 1862 b. 1860 c. 1972 d. 1966 Ans : (d)17. How many High Courts are there in India? a. 18 b. 27 c. 17 d. 21 Ans : (d)18. Which state shares the same High Court? a. Haryana & Chandigarh b. Punjab & Haryana c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (b)19. Integrated judicial system is :- a. Lower courts are not bind to obey the supreme courts decision b. Decisions of the high courts are bonded by lower courts c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (b)20. Criminal law include :- a. Theft b. Harassing a women c. Murder d. All of these Ans : (d)21. FIR means :- a. First information report b. Final information Result c. First Incident report d. None of these Ans : (a)22. Civil law include :- a. Disputes related to sale of land b. Disputes related to purchase of good c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (c)23. ‘A group of girl is harassed by a group of boys’ is comes under :- a. Civil Law b. Social law c. Economical law d. Criminal law Ans : (d)24. A tenant who is being formed to move out fills a case in courts against the landlord :- a. Civil Law b. Social law c. Economical law d. Criminal law Ans : (a)25. A mechanism of PIL was devised in :- a. 1980 b. 1996 c. 2000 d. 2004 Ans : (a)26. ‘To increase to justice’ supreme Court devised :- a. FIR b. PIL c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (b)27. Mid – day meal given in government – aided schools because of :- a. Supreme Court b. FIR c. PIL d. All of these Ans : (c)28. For common people access to court is :- a. Access to justice b. Access to help c. Access to equality d. None of these Ans : (a)29. ”Right to food ” is included in :- a. Act 26 b. Act 46 c. Act 21 d. Act 76 Ans : (c)30. ” Right to livelihood ” is a part of :- a. Right of equality b. Right to freedom c. Right to life d. All of these Ans : (c)31. Who was the chief justice of India in November 2007 :- a. K.G. Bala Krishna b. Dr. Ambedkar c.Krishnamurti d. None of these Ans : (a)32. Supreme court has :- a. 25 judges b. 26 judges c. 20 judges d. 18 judges Ans : (b)33. Sanctioned strength of judges in High courts are :- a. 10 b. 54 c. 34 d. 25 Ans : (d)34. How many fundamental rights are there in constitution :- a. Six b. Seven c. Two d. Ten Ans : (a)35. ” Right to protect” comes under the right to :- a. Act 26 b. Act 46 c. Act 21 d. Act 76 Ans : (c)36. Acquaint means :- a. Imprisonment given to victim b. Person feels no guilty of the crime c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (b)37. Compensation means :- a. Money given to make amend for an injury b. Punishment given to make amend for an injury c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (a)38. Violation is _______ a. Act of breaking law b. Act of infringement of fundamental right c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (b)39. The chief justice of India is appointed by :- a. Prime minister b. Ministers of council c. Members of parliament d. President Ans : (d)40. Work done by the courts in the country is known as :- a. A glance at newspaper b. Through news channels c. Through media d. All of these Ans : (a)41. In India there is a rule of _______ a. Person b. Prime minister c. President d. Law Ans : (d)42. Judiciary plays a crucial role because it is :- a. Independent b. Dependent c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (a)43. Name the agricultural labourer who fell from a running train? a. Dr. Rajender parsad b. Hakkim Sheikh c. Shehk Mohammad d. None of these Ans : (a)44. Dispute between centre & state comes under :- a. High court b. Lok Adalat c. District court d. Supreme Court Ans : (b)45. Dispute between two citizens :- a. High court b. Lok Adalat c. District court d. Supreme Court Ans : (a)46. Fundamental rights are :- a. Written in constitution b. Verbally given by government c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (a) 47. Fill the structure of court :-a. High court b. Lok Adalat c. District court d. Supreme Court Ans : (d)48. Dispute between two states :- a. High court b. Lok Adalat c. District court d. Supreme Court Ans : (d)49. Right to food include :- a. All people should get food b. No one goes to sleep hungry c. Both (a) & (b) d. None of these Ans : (c)50. Is president is a part of parliament? a. Yes b. No c. May be d. cannot say Ans : (a)

    THESE ARE IN MY FIRST LEVEL SYLLABUS TO SKIP THE THIRD PAPER OF SA2 WHICH IS ALSO A VERY TIRING SORT OF A PAPER IN A TIRING EXAMINATION.

  16. Siddhartha Dutta

    In a country like India, whenever I think of a change to assert on, the first thing which hits my mind is the “OVERCREEPING POPULATION”.
    This anomaly acts as a fiasco to the development of the society at large!!
    Change is facilitated only when it gets implemented; population emphasises despicability in our nation.

  17. kiuram

    I h’v got Lot of points to be put into reality. Thanks writer.And can i get your help in writing an essay on “Relevance of fundamental rights and duties at hand”Anyone plzz atleast 250 words only.its urgent plzz.

  18. vijay

    Only Negative analysis of the constitution…….

  19. Bhaskar Jyoti Patir

    Make a comprehensive analysis of provision related to education in Indian Constitution.

  20. Yashswini Chauhan

    This article is highly negative and does not provide relevant examples and reasons behind the points the writer is trying to make. The writer should have researched more before writing this paper. Some points are very difficult to agree upon, for example the Indian Constitution is difficult to comprehend.

  21. Apurva Lohakare

    Absolutely these things should be taken into consideration.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

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A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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