By Ajay Rana:
Our build-up and activities are regulated from the action of 30,000 genes. They are also known as DNA and reside in each of our cells in the body. Some of them work continuously to maintain the normal physiology and provide energy to it, while others switch on and off according to the need and time. These genes or DNA are made from four bases namely A, G, T, and C and exact sequential arrangement of nearly 200 bases make one gene. Genes are responsible to make proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids etc which are constituents of our body. Incorrect placement of even one base in the DNA sequence may lead to mishap in the production of protein, carbohydrate lipid or DNA itself. This is the ultimate resolution of the cause of disease and therefore stands firm to fine tune them as target for drugs. The DNA sequence of humans is about 3 billion bases and every individual has a few bases different at certain places in the sequence which distinguishes them as different from others.
Personal genomics is the approach of studying whole DNA or genes of an individual and prescribe medicine according the change in the DNA sequence. With the advent of cheap and fast sequencers and triumph revolution of technology such as 454, 23andME, deCODEme, and Navigenics, it is now possible to sequence a large quantity of genes within a day with 100 % correctness and it is possible now to prescribe and administer exact drugs to every individual, according to the change in the DNA sequence he/she carries in their cells. Efforts are being carried out to make it reach to the mass and make it aware to the whole society.
Early Diagnosis of a Disease.
By comparing the DNA sequence with available DNA in database it is quite possible to predict the disease the person is going to suffer. The likelihood of an individual developing breast cancer is affected by which alleles they have of particular genes. Screening can reveal breast cancer in the early stages, allowing it to be successfully treated. 50% of breast cancers occur in the 12% of the population who are at greatest risk.
Exact DNA —drug combination and disease combating:
It is hoped that genetic information will allow physicians to tailor therapy to a given patient, in order to increase drug efficacy and minimize side effects. There are only a few examples in which this information is currently useful in clinical practice, but it is anticipated that tailored therapy will emerge rapidly as researchers validate the clinical utility of different pharmacogenomic markers.Â Drug Banks are available to provide the whole lists of drugs in sequential order to be prescribed to the known diseases. These are repository of drugs databases from where the medicines are chosen according to the disease that has been deciphered from the analysis of DNA sequence. The physician then prescribes the drugs to the Quake
The $1000 genome:
The cost of sequencing an individual sequence currently is US$ 10,000 which is quite high to reach to the mass. By 2014, its cost will be US$ 1000 and by 2020 it will rock the bottom making every individual happy to fight the disease of their own. Still with symptoms and characters of a patient it possible to narrow down the sequencing cost of DNA and enjoy the benefits of DNA information and drug databases!
Looking at the enormous sure shot benefits of personal medicine strategy, it is here advised to all the citizens to look forward and walk with the current developments that are taking place in the field of disease diagnosis and treatments. Besides knowing the arrangement of their own DNA sequences, and in what degree they are different fromÂ their near and far neighbors, it is far beneficial to predict the disease they are going to carry beforehand and sort out the problem. The cost of medicating an individual with their personalized genome is going to hit the bottom soon. It will be quite interesting to the common mass by 2014 to fantasize the molecular therapy of the disease with all the causal information decoded as sequence in the own hands of the patient. It is going to be a miracle in medical therapy and boon to the good health of the society and the coming generation too.