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Indian Island Majuli, World’s Largest River Island, Fights For Its Biodiversity Amidst Climate Change

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By Pooja Kalita:

Lush green hills to rocky terrains, golden sparkling sand of the desert to white snow-clad mountains, inhabited by wonders of the life-forms characterizes the Indian land, a land which explains biodiversity to the fullest extent. To explain it further I do not think that there would be any other region more suitable than the region of north-east India where the most amazing creatures in the world are found, of which the one horned rhinoceros of Kaziranga in Assam can be cited as an example.

Turning our glances towards the heartland of the state of Assam, there is situated the largest river island in the world-MAJULI. The air in this island is filled with the mystical music of Flute, conch sounds and prayer songs. The religious leaders called Sattradhars recite the Vedic scriptures while the villagers clap hands and bow their heads in unison.

Each monsoon, the spiritual leaders invoke the Gods to seek divine intervention, because their homeland, Majuli–one of the largest inhabited river islands with 1.3 million people–is fast disappearing. The island located in the flood plains of the Brahmaputra River was 1,256 sq km in 1950, but now it has shrunk to about half that size.

Every year the local communities gather at different points on the island to pray to God to save them from being engulfed by the tempestuous Brahmaputra, the longest river in India. All efforts to protect the island and curb erosion, caused by the glacial waters of the Himalayas, have failed. The villagers spend sleepless nights in fear of floods and erosion. They take turns to keep vigil, ready to relocate instantaneously with their belongings and domestic animals.

And each year life is getting more desperate.

Climate change has resulted in chaos and despondency on the river island. Now the average annual rate of erosion is 6.42 km sq whereas land was lost at 1.77 sq km per year from 1917 to 1972. Since 1990, more than 35 villages have been washed away. Each year the intensity and frequency of the floods increase and the magnitude of the damage swells. The temperatures fluctuate and monsoons are more unpredictable. The floods and the erosions affect more than 95 percent of 243 small and large villages. The local people have become climate change refugees within the island.

The impact of climate change is not limited to diminution of shoreline or internal displacement of islanders. At the same time, the biodiversity of this hotspot is dwindling.

Quietly but rapidly, many of the 200 rare healing herbs, some of the 150 species of birds, unique and rich flora and fauna– endemic to the region– have disappeared. The number of migratory birds that visit the island annually has declined. Inland water and freshwater biodiversity is endangered because of increase in temperatures. Warmer temperatures, rapid change in seasonal flow regimes, total flows, lake levels and water quality, affect fish and other aquatic resources.

This is the fate of many other river islands in northeast India such as Dibru-Saikhowa, one of the largest river island national parks and Umananda that consist of famous Hindu temples.

So, why focus on Majuli or any river island?

Partly because climate change proponents suggest Majuli could disappear within the next 20 years. But more importantly to expand the climate change conversation to include the shrinking biodiversity and landscape of river islands.

Recently, the Carteret Islanders in the South Pacific Ocean, a matrilineal society 50 miles off the coast of Papua New Guinea, caught international attention when they became some of the world’s first climate change refugees. The entire population is officially evacuated because the sea is swallowing their islands and storm surges ruining their crops. Similarly, Kiribati and Tuvalu, two other South Pacific islands have begun relocating its people because of global warming.

However, it seems the climate change discussion has mostly concentrated on rising sea level and the poisoning of crops and freshwater wells by salt.

Majuli is unique because of its fluvial geomorphology with islands within islands and its landmass, which changes shape every summer due to relentless floods.

Majuli is also the epicenter of Assamese Vashnavite culture and houses over 30 Satras, which are cultural and educational centers. UNESCO is reviewing its nomination for world heritage site status.

In the mid-deltaic island, formed because Brahmaputra changed its course, agrarian populations have thrived since the 7th century AD. According to land records, the island has been eroding for the last hundred years but erosion accelerated after the earthquake of 1950, when the riverbed rose overnight.

In Assam, traditional farming revolves around a six-season cycle. But local farmers and fishermen say that each year two seasons are missing. Distinctions are getting blurred among summer, monsoon, autumn, late autumn, winter and spring seasons. These are not erratic mood swings of weather but a consistent pattern, experienced by the indigenous communities of Assam in the last decade. The amount of rainfall has not increased in the last 100 years, however, rainfall patterns are inconsistent and temperatures are fluctuating. The annual floods have precariously increased.

The changes in the cropping and fruiting patterns are disturbing the food chain. This in turn is jeopardizing the feeding, breeding and migrating patterns of animals. The intensity of rainfall has altered, creating drought in some years and flood in the others. The course of river Brahmaputra and its tributaries are changing every year, eroding Majuli, engulfing small islands and creating new islets called as chaporis. More than 22 new islets have been formed around Majuli resulting in relocation and disturbance of native flora and fauna.

The result is a domino effect that is shrinking the biodiversity, endangering the aquatic life in the lowlands, swamps, riverine sand flats, tributaries, channels and wetlands, which make the river islands.

Biological diversity is essential for human survival as it provides food, medicines and industrial raw materials. To tide over heavy flooding seasons they live in unique houses built on bamboo stilts. Despite their seasonal nomadic existence they have devised innovative strategies to maintain the major occupations including agriculture, fishing, pottery, mask making and sericulture.

Climate change affects rivers in many ways: warming of freshwater, reduction of dissolved oxygen, changes in the interaction between water and their watersheds, changes in biogeochemical cycling, greater frequencies of extreme events including flood and drought, thus affecting growth, reproduction and distribution of organisms. Increase in water levels has submerged crucial breeding grounds of rare and endangered migratory birds. There is a 30 percent decline in species richness.

Each year, Brahmaputra inundates almost the entire island by breaching dykes and deposits sediments on extremely fertile land and rendering it unproductive.

The villagers regularly volunteer to redesign the banks of the islands, construct raised tube wells to secure safe drinking water, build embankments and roads.

I believe the best way to show the impact of climate change on river islands is by “going native,” like anthropologists and travelers, who immerse in the community.

Yet the hope of rejuvenating the island’s declining image of losing its startling biodiversity, and its magnetism as a heritage has to be combined with concrete efforts of not only the natives but also the different organizations working in the expanse of saving the island’s legacy and the government shouldering this great responsibility. We still can be optimistic for the future as the natives join their hands and bow their heads every morning in the satras for well-being of not only the people residing there but also the different forms of natural life residing responsible for magnificent biodiversity of the region which makes it one of the sought-after tourist spots of India, visited by people from different parts of the globe.

You must be to comment.
  1. sush

    wow! the place is pretty densely populated! :O

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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