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Politics and The Great Indian Rebel: Of the Many “Anna Hazare”s

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By Saikat Bose:

I have often wondered why the “angry young man” of Popular Indian cinema has been a formula that has never failed to attract the masses. While art films, rom-coms and parallel cinema have found acceptance among the urban audience, the concept of the socially marginalised hero raging a war against the Establishment to either marry a princess or avenge a death of another marginalised figure has never really gone out of fashion. We Indians have revelled in the defeat of establishment, the destruction of a power structure and the triumph of the Rebel figure.

Cinema depicts society and a society is shaped by its history. Our history of a prolonged freedom struggle culminating in a glorious overthrow of the colonial power has conditioned us in manner that the Man on the street has always attracted our sympathies and more often than not, our support. We have cheered for him, assembled behind him and voiced his slogans. Tim Robbins says in The Shawshank Redemption, “Hope is a good thing”. Every movement, every protest, every revolution has given us the hope of a better future.

It must be pointed out, in this context, that public mandate in our country has been largely motivated by the influence of individual personalities than by ideological positions of their parties. We have worshipped our leaders, risked stampedes to shake hands with them and mourned their deaths. The repeated murder of the Constitution and the twisting of ideologies have never attracted our attention, leave aside the tears. The creation of an individual Mahatma has further served a camouflage to our collective cowardice. In making a God out of a leader, we acknowledge our mediocrity and occupy the paradoxical position of a ‘supporter’.

It is the triumph of the person over ideologies, that seals the fate of Indian democracy. When the politics of a State is based on face value, election is reduced to nothing more than a trial-and-error method to hit on the perfect government. We clamour for change and not for reformation. Consequentially, the decadence of the political structure is neither detected nor mended. Rather, it lies concealed under the game of shifting allegiances from one Messiah to the other.
It is this politics of ‘change’ that makes the Man on the street assume the legendary stature in public perception. His presence assures us of an alternative, a reaction to the Establishment.

A few instances from post-independence India would be handy to substantiate my argument. Consider the example of revolutionary CPI(M) leader Charu Mazumdar, the mastermind behind the Naxalbari uprising of 1967. It is the brutal suppression of the uprising by the CPI(M)-supported United Front Government that contributed to the “spurned comrade” image of Mazumdar, something that converted him to a larger-than-life figure. It was his courage to defy his own party to fight for marginalised peasants that made a legend out of him. Charu Mazumdar became an impulse that ran through the nerves of the educated urban youth of Calcutta in 1970, because he was a  non-conformist martyr, a figure deserted by the Establishment.

Another celebrated figure in post-independence revolutions was Jayaprakash Narayan, who was named Loknayak: The People’s Hero. JP’s act of evocatively reciting lines from Ramdhari Singh Dinkar’s poem to a crowd of 100,000 in Ramlila Maidan — “Singhasan choro ke Janta aati hai” — sent a symbolic message to the masses who refused to see him as just another leader opposing the Emergency. For them, it was the voice of a “Gandhian Socialist” who had left party politics to join the Bhoodan movement of Vinoba Bhave, an advocate of “saintly politics”, who, in spite of being an outsider to popular politics, dared to challenge the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and attack her on the violation of human rights during Emergency. In doing so, he was elevated in public perception to the Rebel figure who dared to challenge the Establishment of Congress Dynastic politics. The result: Janata Dal, under his leadership became the first non-Congress party to come to power.
Both Mazumdar and Narayan lived in an age where there weren’t 500 news channels with thousands of journalists scampering with their cameras to squeeze out the most trivial of news from our daily lives. Those were days when Leaders Rose and Revolutions took place.

Then came the electronic media, and leaders were created and revolutions were manufactured. It’s the age of consumerist market policies, of brand marketing and advertising fundas. A mass revolution sells newspapers, raises TRP and engages the audience who suddenly feel this is their moment to awaken the spirit of duty within them. They ‘have to’ support this.

Year 2011: The congress government is on a sticky wicket following the exposure of numerous government scams. The chief opposition BJP is still struggling to maintain harmony among its top ranks and conceal its “hindutva” image in this land of apparent secularism. Enter Anna Hazare, with the demand of a strong anti-corruption Lokpal Bill. The cameras start rolling and celebrities start paying him visits to express solidarity. Within days, Anna is Mahatma. Google Instant dethrones Anna Kournikova to make way for Anna Hazare, and every corrupt man feels that wearing an Anna cap makes him a freedom fighter, something more ludicrous than washing one’s sins in the Ganges. What is forgotten in the midst is that Corruption is not an institutionalized evil that is restricted to the politician. Rather, it is essentially a result of individual human greed. A Lokpal is another law, something that we have in abundance. It can make us gloat in a sense of false power. What it cannot do is implement laws in a country where brothers kill each other for property. These questions were not asked because for the revolution to be complete, a common enemy was needed. Who else, but the government? All ‘sensible’ Indians who watch 24×7 news channels instantly identify with Anna and what started out as a collective movement got converted into a Rebel figure’s struggle against the crimes of the state, a messiah suffering for the masses. Even the septuagenarian social activist succumbed to the charm of being a Mahatma, and his asanas became his weapon to attack a government baffled by this sudden rebellion. What was interesting was that neither Anna nor the ones wearing his caps had any clue of what was happening. The ones who did; knew how to manufacture a revolution, when to replace Bharat Mata’s picture by Gandhi’s on Anna’s stage and when to distance Anna from the RSS. But, for the people, Anna was the Messiah, one who would redeem them. But then the Rebel became a petitioner. Rebels in India are celebrated only when they are martyrs. Anna survived and people got bored. Newspapers forgot him, cameras ignored him and people got back to their lives. The Rebel had neither died nor pulled down the State. Thus, his magic had waned away.

Someone has rightly said, “India loves Bollywood and Cricket”. In an age when cricket is played throughout the year in different formats, it is difficult to predict the future of its madness among people. But, what is certain is that Bollywood has taught us something, “Anth mein jeet hamesha satya ki hoti hai”. We love revolutions. Individual heroism lets us conceal our collective cowardice. The power of Satya for us is one we can identify with, one who fights alone and is doomed to defeat even in the long run. Even in his victory, the rebellion dies a natural death. Unlike our colonisers who have still not been able to do away with the Queen, we do like changes. If revolutions are coming, we are ready to embrace it…. with open hands.

Do you think the author of the above article is right to say that Protests and revolutions in India are short-lived? Are We, as people, only enamoured with the idea of The Great Indian Rebel? What, according to you, do political and ideological leaders in the country have to learn from this? Write in to with your views on the same.


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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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