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Modi Magic To Turn Around The Country’s Civil Services?

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By Abhishek Jha:

The Indian Administrative Service, under the Civil Services of India, is one of the most important legacies bequeathed to India by the British. Hailed by Sardar Patel for its role in keeping the unity of India intact, the service involves the most sought after jobs in India. The power, administrative clout, and dignity of class that comes with it imply that lakhs of Indians continue to fight for a seat in the IAS despite the pay-scale disparity it has with private corporations. What also comes with the halo of ‘babudom’ is immunity from prosecution.  Answerable only to the elected representatives and being their fist of executive control on the nation, the IAS is also infamous for being a corrupt bureaucratic system. With the new Modi government seeking to grow its footprint in the country by upending the sinking image of the bureaucracy, it is likely that suggestions of bureaucratic reform will be heeded.

 

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It is reported that the Modi government is looking to give the Indian Administrative Service a makeover by allowing corporate executives and academics to compete for top posts along with serving officials. This might happen soon with the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) already working to produce a model by March 15, 2015. Since the administration body deeply affects our lives and is not directly accountable to us like the elected representatives, it is imperative that we examine this proposed reform.

Need: Poor execution of government policies is a plague that has affected India’s growth severely. Our elected representatives being accountable to us have the pressure to yield to our expectations. Despite being equally prey to inconsistencies as any other human being, their dishonesty is precluded by the power invested in the electorate to vote them out of power. These representatives, however, may not be good managers and academics. They rely on their advisers and the executive to bring their plans to fruition. These plans, being of national importance and requiring in-depth knowledge of the intricacies of the particular portfolios, require seasoned and sharp people for execution.

The IAS on the other hand has hardly any incentive for being competitive or remaining so after their selection into the service. Promotion is based on seniority and one only has to bide one’s time to move to the higher echelons of power. Article 311 of the Constitution provides that they cannot be demoted or dismissed for incompetency. Job secure and cash flowing in from under the table both from politicians for covering them and from subordinates for dispensing any business, such a person hardly has any deterrent against indolence. The title of ‘babu’, which still has the effect of a colonial master over the populace- both frightening them to subjection and inuring them to the corruption-, makes them arrogant enough to stifle any innovative, revolutionary, and progressive thought.

Unless a selected candidate decides at the very outset to challenge himself or herself to make themselves eligible for a private job after a few years of service in the IAS, the person gets mired in a vicious cycle of sloth and megalomania feeding on sycophants and powerful contacts to further one’s power and bank-balance. This makes the administrative services an institution deeply embedded with corruption with no driving force to bring it out of the abyss.

Making senior posts available only through competition thus has a two-fold benefit. One, the serving official will have an incentive for self-improvement, thus improving administration at all levels. Two, the posts being fought for will have only the most able person holding the office, and not the best from a lot whose only merit is its tenure in a corrupt system.

Here one might demand to know the difference between a privately employed graduate and an IAS officer, both being graduates in a particular field. Are they not specialists in their field? Sanjeev Sabhlok, a former IAS officer who has worked both with the Indian and Australian administrative services (the current model being drawn up takes inspiration from among others, the Australian model of bureaucracy) and the author of the book Breaking Free of Nehru: Let’s Unleash India!, points me to the fifth chapter of his book, which says:

“The producer’s interest is to master his discipline and to keep acquiring knowledge, since that knowledge will convert into profits. The bureaucrat’s interest, on the other hand, is to not undertake personal hard work or acquire knowledge. Instead, it is in his interest to delegate every possible task to others, including to ‘consultants’. A producer therefore becomes smarter over time while a bureaucrat becomes shrewd, but also very ignorant and arrogant.”

Both the corporate leader’s and the bureaucrat’s personal interests lie at odds with public interest. The only way to align their interest with the public interest is to create deterrents and incentives that will push them to work in public interest.

Outcome: Private companies already have enterprising individuals working for them to the best of their ability by creating incentives for better performance. They are paid a premium to deliver performance. To rope in these individuals, the government will have to revise the salaries for the bearer of these offices. This will immediately initiate a chain of incentive motivating the person to abhor corruption and perform instead. More will be said about the factors on which such monetary incentives must be contingent in the next section.

Now, although the recruited administrators are competent graduates in their respective fields, since promotion is based on seniority and not on merit, skill-set, or performance, often a person not proficient in a field might end up holding an office in it. This can severely hamper the functioning of that portfolio since the elected minister is heavily dependent on this person and his subordinates for framing and executing policies. When this post is opened to a pool of specialists, the efficiency of the whole system will improve to a great extent. Lateral entry given to Manmohan Singh was a great boost to Indian economy that was in dire need of reforms that were not being made due to a lack of conviction and enterprising spirit that is the bane of being a non-specialist.

It is also important to note that individuals recruited from private institutions are already hard-wired for performance when they make a lateral entry into the government job. Unlike their IAS counterparts who go blunt with years of indolent or ineffective service, they still have the skills and, hence, the option to revert to their former job. Thus they are open to hard, risky, and innovative solutions to age-old problems.

Alternatives and legitimacy: The reforms proposed, however, have a hint of the free-market theory in them that has been criticised for not accounting for the long colonial past and its impacts on the economies of LICs (low-income countries). India is already plagued with a top-down flow of ideas and orders in its society impeding progress. Empowering an individual at the top who has been ingrained with colonial ideas of suppression of the voices of its subjects may backfire. Taking Taylor’s idea of money being the sole motivator may not hold true in a country like India where sectarian politics is often enough to put representatives into power. A friend, a winner of the 2013 Berkeley Travel Fellowship Competition, who is soon to graduate, had the following apprehension:

“It may have been a welcome step in different conditions. But given who is taking it, I am afraid it is perhaps a convenient way of getting people with right wing ideologies… strong right wing ideologies… into the “bureaucracy”, which otherwise might have taken time”

This is not an unfounded apprehension.  Since the incumbent government rides high on its Hindutva rhetoric, will it replace bureaucrats currently secure about their jobs (and hence capable of disagreeing with the political leadership) with employees whose sole way of keeping the flow of incentives going would be to play sycophant to the political leader he is answerable to?

Unlike western models, we have a completely different model working in Japan with decent results. The Japanese model of bureaucracy focuses on participatory and collaborative decision making to allow ideas to flow from both top and bottom ends of the hierarchy. Quality circles bring together employers across the hierarchy to do R & D, that too outside office time. Institutionalising communal participation through company anthems and office uniforms and avoiding alienation of workers by providing loans for housing, education, etc. makes these people loyal and responsible.

The move losing its sanguine sheen, I approach Sanjeev again for feedback. His answer asks for a proper model for implementing this lateral entry idea. He says, “What I’ve outlined is an accountability based model based on the world’s best frameworks. This is also consistent with recommendations in Arthashastra. I believe there is no point in any training etc. without getting the basics right. There is a lot of useless training given to IAS etc. officers. But it is pointless. Unless you can dismiss the person for non-performance immediately and without recourse, there is no point in trying these ‘lateral’ entry ideas.” The Second Administrative Reforms Commission, according to the report cited above, does ask for a contractual appointment through competition, in which failure to perform may lead to direct termination.

The reform we see is thus much needed in an institution that lags far behind the leading institutions of its ilk across the globe. The final outcome of the reform will depend heavily on the representatives we have chosen to make this reform. Its intent so far has been good in this regard, and if properly brought to fruition we can hope for a hassle-free administrative system that makes us trust it and delivers on the government’s promise.

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  1. Gaurav Pingale

    Sir, i am now in 2nd yr engineering and year is about to end. I am planning for UPSC preparation from 3rd year. So, please guide me the way i should start and prepare for next two years, to clear IAS in first Attempt?

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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