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The Shameless U-Turn Of The Environment Ministry Under PM Modi

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By Anjali Nambissan:

The National Green Tribunal, you may have read, has been heralded for upholding the cause of wildlife conservation overruling the BJP government’s subversive tactics to declaw the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. First, the Central government whined about how the forest clearance process is holding up infrastructure and public utilities projects, such as roads and power lines in forest areas. The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, seemingly took note of this, and issued two communications – one on August 8, 2014, and the other on January 15, 2015 – allowing linear projects, such as roads, power lines, railway tracks and pipelines, and related expansion, to begin felling trees and construction work once they’re given a preliminary in-principal forest clearance.

Linear projects include roads, power lines, highways, bridges, canals and pipelines.
Linear projects include roads, power lines, highways, bridges, canals and pipelines. Picture Credit: Anjali Nambissan

The National Green Tribunal upheld the fact that an in-principle clearance is only the first step in the forest clearance process and does not constitute a go-ahead signal. The MoEF was also instructed to not change laws, willy-nilly. Wildlife biologist Milind Pariwakam, who brought the matter before the NGT, correctly pointed out that if felling trees and construction are carried out before the actual forest clearance is awarded, then there is no point in waiting for the clearance process to finish. The damage is already done.

About face

To me, MoEF’s actions seem to be a strange and shameless U-turn from the draft Guidelines for linear infrastructure intrusions in natural areas: roads and powerlines of the National Board of Wildlife, which is an MoEF body. Acknowledging that roads and power lines in natural areas cause a host of problems not only to the animals, but also to the indigenous people residing in the forests, the guidelines seek to ensure that infrastructural development is undertaken without “ compromising the long-term value of natural areas, their ecosystem services, and imperiling the prospects for more holistic development.” There are specific guidelines, in the document, for roads and power line projects to proceed only after a Social and Environmental Impact Assessment, and in case they are permitted, they cannot cut up closed-canopy forests or old, native trees, amongst other things. The MoEF acknowledges that…

“… roads and powerlines established as linear intrusions in such natural areas, cause habitat loss and fragmentation, spread of invasive alien species, desiccation of vegetation, wind-throw damage to trees in forest areas, increased incidence of fires, animal injury and mortality (e.g., roadkill, electrocution), changes in animal behaviour, increased developmental, tourist and hunting pressures, increase in pollution, garbage, and various disturbances.”

Wildlife behaviour changes with increased intrusions into their habitat.
Wildlife behaviour changes with increased intrusions into their habitat. Picture Credit: Anjali Nambissan

So what’s with these subversive communications, MoEF?

Wildlife on the run

Yes, linear projects, such as roads, canals, highways, power transmission lines, and railway tracks connect far-flung areas and provide other obvious economic benefits. But, they also kill animals living in the forest areas. Some of which are touted to be under protection. Take deers, rhinos, and elephants that are being run over on the notorious NH-37 that runs through the Kaziranga National Park, for example. Earlier this month, the NGT rapped the Assam government’s knuckles on the increasing animal casualties, directing them to submit the figures of 2013 and 2014. Then, there is the deadly NH-209 dubbed a ‘death trap’ for wildlife such as gaur, sloth bears, wildcats, and reptiles in a report submitted to the Karnataka State Forest Department by biologists, last month. NH-209 connects Mysore to Coimbatore through the Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve.

Power lines: An arrow in a poachers' quiver?
Power lines: An arrow in a poachers’ quiver? Picture Credit: Anjali Nambissan

Power lines killed 61 elephants in Odisha in 2012. And now, poachers have figured out the power of the power lines. Poachers killed 88 wild elephants, rhinos, sambars, and boars by drawing lines from the high-tension power lines running over wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, the central government said in response to a Supreme Court order from November, 2014!

I request the hallowed MoEF to do their job, which is to ensure that our quest for economic development does not wipe out our flora and fauna. Do not make it an environment versus development debate – that environment is going to lose anyway. Because if the environment loses, so do we.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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