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Dalit History Is Not Just A Tale Of Violence And Oppression

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By Pallavi Ghosh

Reports of violence against Dalits flood the media. However, despite the presence of such violence, one might argue that there is a pressing need to develop the Dalit discourse beyond the limited concerns of violence and suppression. This can be done by tracing points of assertion and achievements in the past as well as the present. In other words, the history of Dalits should not be limited to a series of narratives of oppression simply because it is not the complete reality.


Statistically, the NCRB (National Crime Records Bureau) records reveal an annual increase in the incidences of crime against the Scheduled Castes. Between 2012 and 2013, there were 6000 more cases against SCs with an almost 18 percent increase in registered cases. The crime rate has likewise witnessed almost a 3 percent jump from 2012 to 2013. Considering the total increase in criminal cases within a year – 59,8819, crimes against Dalits (39,408) constitute 6.5 percent of the total number of increased cases in 2013.

Data source: NCRB
Data source: NCRB

It is no surprise, thus, that a bulk of media reports on Dalits have indeed been crime reports. While these have been important to gauge the level of injustice against individuals and communities, they tend to freeze the image and identity of a Dalit in terms of a constantly victimised individual. These narratives, thus portrays the Dalit in a constant position of lack and suppression.

In the words of Ankit Gautam, a student at JNU, “The way media depicts Dalits has indeed been very stigmatizing, sensationalizing and criminalizing. In cases where crime has taken place, it has tended to expose the Dalit identity of the victim by marking them out with their lower caste.

There are hardly any reports that deal with the Dalit struggles and achievements in contemporary times. We are simply faced with a blank slate with regard to Dalit cultures, their history, their leaders, activists and entrepreneurs, and the political mobilisation amongst them. To give an example of our ignorance, here is a question- who is the first Dalit president of India?

However, this void is partially filled by an existing and simultaneously growing practice of Dalit literature carried out by non-governmental organisations and academics. The book ‘Defying The Odds: The Rise Of Dalit Entrepreneurs’, lists 21 Dalit entrepreneurs. It is worth pondering that while the Ambanis and Jindals are busy waving off the media buzz, why there is not a single story or interview on even one of those 21 Dalit entrepreneurs?

The Dalit History Month, which is a radical history project to present a holistic, descriptive and comprehensive view of Dalit history and experience, seems to combine narrations of assertion and victimisation over the centuries. The project involves a reconstruction of history from a string of mythologies establishing caste relations, to struggles and movements, political advocacy, leaders, as well stories of discrimination.

Nevertheless, much like their academic counterparts, doubts hover around the reach and scope of an online project. The persisting concern over the disconnect of academic research with ground reality, specially in terms of the circulation of data among closed academic circles, keeps the visibility of such projects low. Therefore, with a greater mass circulation of media, the emergent dominant image of the Dalit is that of constant, hapless victim.

The lack of self-affirming stories has the same damaging effect as caste-based violence has on its sufferers, i.e., damaging the dignity, sense of self worth and identity of a Dalit.

Also read: This April, The Lions Write Their Own History #DalitHistoryMonth

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    First of all, who are Dalits? They are the Hindus only. Do they look different? Do they worship different Gods? Do they eat, speak or wear clothes differently? Do they speak a different language? No! No! Then why they are discriminated, on what basis? Why there is separate literature known as ‘Dalit literature’. The basic question is – if they are Hindus then why they are always projected as a completely different group. A group with whom you cannot sit and eat, a group who is considered dimwit, their success surprises you. Why? Because in everyone’s mind it is sown that ‘Dalits’ are not humans. They are a ‘separate’ bunch of group whose identity is never more than an untouchable. And upper castes have had no shame in maintaining this hierarchy because they need somebody over whom they can rule. Who made these rules and why they are still relevant in today’s time? Why people follow them, even now? So, what is the identity of a Dalit? Can you just refer them without using the word ‘Dalit’ or ‘Harijan’ or ‘untouchables’? Do you think you are doing a favor to them by writing this article? Corruption and segregation is in your mind. The day people will realize they are also just people, everything will change. Yes, everything. Only you need to stop thinking them as ‘Dalit’ and start thinking them as ‘humans’. Thank you.

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