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The Truth About Male Sexual Assault No One Wants To Address

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By Shambhavi Saxena:

In the year 2011, New York City based photographer Grace Brown started Project Unbreakable to visually document survivors of sexual abuse and violence holding up placards of the things their abusers said to them. Brown started off on Tumblr, until the project gathered steam and all but exploded the internet with images of unbreakable rape survivors. Many of these survivors are featured looking straight into the camera and even smiling triumphantly, letting the world know that if shame is to be attached to anyone, it ought to be the rapist or abuser.

male rapez

Brown’s project and the speed and reach of social media have certainly opened up dialogue about hush-hush topics like sexual assault. But scrolling through the photographs, you notice a minority group surfacing now and then, between every thirty or forty pictures. Now you’d think a minority group in the case of sexual assault survivors would count as a good thing, wouldn’t you? Not quite. The group of which I speak, male survivors, is oft ignored when it comes to discussions about sexual violence.

For this, there are a combination of reasons. The most obvious of these is the notion of traditional masculinity – which denies men vulnerability, urging us to believe that they cannot be victims of sexual abuse. Corollary to this is the belief that men are naturally inclined to be perpetrators. And that’s where the second obvious reason comes in – the law. The laws that exist are coloured by society’s perceptions of ‘order’. Needless to say, laws can and do change when human needs and demands change. However, when dealing with male victims of sexual violence, the rule book remains uncomfortably silent.

Little over a year after Project Unbreakable took off, the incident that came to be known as the December 16 gang-rape shook the collective consciousness of a nation, necessitating a re-evaluation of the laws. Thanks to the Justice Verma Committee, several additions and changes were formalised, including recognising acid attacks, stalking, voyeurism, intent to disrobe, unlawful sexual contact, and several clauses on will and consent. However, nearly all of these provisions gender the perpetrator (the accused) as male, and the victim (the complainant) as female.

Many women’s groups have fought against the gender-neutral language of the new laws, and with good reason. In a country like India, because of patriarchal values embedded in caste, labour roles, the majority of interpretations of religious scripture, and biologically-based human worth, the frequency of male-on-female violence is not only high, it is institutionalised, commonly pardoned, and in places actively encouraged. For many women who don’t have access to health, education and a comfortable income (but not discounting those who do have that access), violence, coercion, policing and disciplining is a part and parcel of being a woman.

In India, there are certain identities that are more or less receptacles for force and abuse. These identities are stripped of their power, with their roles defined. The majority of men cannot claim to share these experiences of oppression, simply because of their accidental position on the power scale. The concerns about gender-neutral laws on sexual violence are, then, these: that men, who already enjoy a great sum of power, may easily misuse legal provisions by filing fraudulent cases against the women they violate, in order to save their own skins. If you think this isn’t likely, remember that dowry and honour killings are a very real and frightening phenomena perpetrated by men in power, and they will stop at nothing. So these groups’ reluctance to have gender neutral laws in a country where gender is visibly polarised is understandable.

Because of how power is distributed between men and women, female-on-male violence is not systemic, and if we all keep our heads, it isn’t about to become systemic. But men can get raped. This is true no matter who tells you what. On 16th July, Delhi auto-driver Umesh Prasad became the target of what appears to be an attempted rape by a female passenger. His assailant has been booked for confinement and robbery, but no charges could be made for sexual assault, because of the genders specified as rapist and victim under Indian law.

When men become victims of rape, it poses some complicated questions. The first is: how do you define rape? Until only very recently, the definition of the act of rape was limited to penile-vaginal penetration. As per this description, it could not be said that men can be raped, even by other men. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 2013 expanded this definition to include non-consensual penetration of any orifice by the assailant’s body parts or an object. This expansion, it would seem, recognizes that rape can happen to men, to trans people, and even between same-sex partners. Yet the legal language extinguishes much hope when it reads:

A man is said to commit “rape” who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances (mentioned as clauses)” – Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code.

Male survivors have to cope with shame and vulnerability, for which their gender instruction has not prepared them, they have to ‘man up’, leaving their emotions and trauma unaddressed. They know that reactions to their story will be crude laughter, humiliating remarks or worse, disbelief. They know they can’t approach the police.

They know that there are no services they can seek out. And at this point, they know that they shouldn’t talk about it, or laugh it out. All of this is extremely damaging not just to the one person, but to a host of others going through the same thing.

It’s a sticky situation, where the legal framework is concerned. Do we amend the rape laws and risk the safety of women? Do we leave them be, and risk the safety of men? It is clear that a solution cannot be arrived at easily. If only we had a gender neutral society deserving of gender neutral laws.

You must be to comment.
  1. B

    “…remember that dowry and honour killings are a very real and frightening phenomena perpetrated by men in power, and they will stop at nothing.”

    Your statement is a LIE. According to NCRB Data, there were 2,22,091 arrests related to 498A in 2013 alone. A man is arrested every 3 minutes for dowry – 98% cases are false.

    From 2005 to 2008, as many as 22,000 men have ended their lives in reverse dowry harassment after allegedly being tormented by their wives. In contrast, dowry harassment has driven 6,800 women to suicide.

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/Harassed-over-dowry-men-demand-fair-play/articleshow/5241108.cms

    Since the media is bigoted and biased, it shows women as dowry victims whereas more than 3 times as many men commit suicide due to harassment from wives. The number of male victims of 498A alone outweigh all crimes against women.

  2. TempleTwins

    The concerns about gender-neutral laws on sexual violence are, then, these: that men, who already enjoy a great sum of power, may easily misuse legal provisions by filing fraudulent cases against the women they violate, in order to save their own skins.

    This is the hypocrisy of feminism in action, even if they give a lot of lip service about how men can be sexually assaulted by women, raped by women. When it comes to action they oppose the gender neutrality of the law because us evil men would misuse them, somehow the angelic women of India never misuses any legislation for their own benefit? This is where ‘some people are more equal than others’ come in play. This is exactly where the inherent gynocentrism of patriarchy takes over any rationale. These so called enlightened gender experts also follow through the same bigotry, pushing the human rights of men back, with such hostility it is apparent that men fight back, I mean if you keep pushing and marginalize people they would end up exhibiting their bottled up anger through violence, voila! more reason to create bigoted laws to protect women and marginalize men and more funds for these womens groups to keep the vicious cycle in place. It is indeed a win-win situation for those womens groups while both men and women suffer.

  3. Monistaf

    So, you know that male rape exists, the extent we will never know since it is apparently not a crime and hence cannot be reported or recorded. You state that these male victims are equally traumatized and tormented by the crime. You also note that the law does not provide any closure or reconciliation for these male victims. You express concern that making the laws gender neutral could potentially impact prosecution of crimes against women. Spoken like a true feminist!! You acknowledge the problem but fear the solution would subtract from the female victim status. So, it is better to exclude half the population of the country to ensure that the other half retains its victim privileges. Yet, as a feminist, I thought you are supposed to be fighting for equality, at least that is what most of us are led to believe.

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Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

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The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

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