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The Problem With Popular Feminism That’s Making Many People Shy Away From The Word

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By Vaagisha Das:

Deepika Padukone grabbed headlines when she affirmed that it was ‘her choice’ to do or not to do things that were traditionally expected of women in the ’empowering’ Vogue ad earlier this year. Touted as the next best thing, the ad seemingly celebrated- and reinforced- women’s freedom to take whatever path they wanted to in life, and not be ashamed of it. However, this ad, adopted by people throughout the country for its revolutionary new idea of feminism, is little more than window dressing on the actual idea that feminism encapsulates. The ideas perpetuated by conventionally beautiful, thin women in the video seem to belong to a particular brand of ‘pop culture’ feminism, which has led to people adopting the phrase with little or no concern to what it actually means. After all, watching a 10-second video is so much more interesting than taking the time to know the subject, and who wouldn’t prefer a glamorous ad to reading long lists of references?

feminism-3

The very same thing has essentially led them to claim that they are not feminists as well – without understanding the true nature of the word. Due to various factors, including but not limited to the hypocrisy of the media, people have now developed pre-conceived notions of the word, and ever since, words like ‘feminazi’ and ‘man hater’ has become synonymous with feminism – a Tinder user added the word ‘feminist’ to her profile, and the ensuing responses prove people’s ignorance- people are becoming wary of identifying themselves as such. Many call themselves humanists instead –like Madonna, claiming that rather than stand for one section of the community, they’d want the entire society to progress – little understanding that the word ‘feminist’ does incorporate all the sections of society, not just women: if you want to achieve gender equality, starting with the oppressed section seems to be the best course of action, and no one has yet claimed that men need female protection.

One needs to distinguish between popular feminism and academic feminism, and to address the issue of why people seem more inclined to believe things based on the former rather than the latter. In an interview with some contemporary feminist scholars in India, I came across three such people who explain why feminism is necessary, and why people are so cautious when using the term.

Why Is Talking About Feminism Still Necessary?

In 1895, the Oxford dictionary defined feminism as “advocacy of the rights of women (based on the theory of equality of the sexes).” In the year 2015, much of the definition still applies, with its idea of rights and equality of women remaining the same, yet the context has somewhat changed. The definition has acquired certain negative connotations- either due to the media or the infamous MRAs- Men’s Rights Activists, or even by those women themselves who claim that they would rather be ‘humanists’ instead, and have no more use for feminism – and the academic definition of the word is now in danger of being buried under stacks of bad press.

Sandra Bartky, a gender studies professor at University of Illinois, says that, “Although most feminists would probably agree that there is some sense of ‘rights’ on which achieving equal rights for women is a necessary condition for feminism to succeed, most would also argue that this would not be sufficient. This is because women’s oppression under male domination rarely if ever consists solely in depriving women of political and legal ‘rights’, but also extends into the structure of our society and the content of our culture, and permeates our consciousness.”

Post-feminism, a movement popular in the west, seeks to impress upon women that feminism is unnecessary in a society where women are now free to do as they wish – since there are legally no barriers to education, jobs, and financial independence, women are now free make their own choices. But if we look closely, the notion of the glass ceiling, the fact that less than five percent of women are top company CEOs, or looking closer home, campaigns based on the fact that rural toilets are necessary to ‘keep women inside and safe’ tell us otherwise.

Arpita Ghosh, an Assistant Professor of English who is currently teaching at Sidhu Kanhu University, West Bengal, her area of interest being Gender and Sexuality studies, states that, “although [politically, economically and legally] some goals that the feminist movements aspired to have been achieved, newer, more complex intersections have arrived. The postcolonial experience, the black woman’s experiences, the working class woman’s lived realities, the lesbian, bisexual, transgender women’s rights, the Dalit woman….so now what we have is a disavowal of a monolithic, Eurocentric, white, heterosexual, predominantly middle and upper class feminism.” She explains her understanding of the term feminist as “someone who would be willing to understand the multiple structures of patriarchal oppression and would be open to the idea that historically feminists to have colluded in these systems of oppression by erasing black or lesbian or working class or Dalit subjectivities. Being feminist is also recognition of the ways patriarchy oppresses males through compulsory masculinity.”

How Popular Feminism Is Making An Increasing Number Of People Shy Away From The Word ‘Feminist’

Although the term “feminism” in English is rooted in the mobilization for woman suffrage in Europe and the US during the late 19th and early 20th century, efforts to obtain justice for women did not begin or end with this period of activism. It has now become common to refer to the feminist movement in the US as occurring in waves. The struggle to achieve basic political rights during the period from the mid-19th century counts as “First Wave” feminism. Feminism waned between the two world wars, to be “revived” in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s as “Second Wave” feminism. In this second wave, feminists pushed beyond the early quest for political rights to fight for greater equality across the board, e.g., in education, the workplace, and at home. More recent transformations of feminism have resulted in a “Third Wave”– which has, at times, been criticized for its lack of intersectionality.

Academic feminism is two pronged- it talks about normative as well as descriptive views of women. Normative views would include looking at how women ought to be viewed in the framework of justice and legal rights, while descriptive view talks about the realities of women’s situation.

However, talking about such issues such as gendered classism, rape, and gendered violence often translates to ‘constant complaining by women’ in a society which people still believe is equal. Such movements make for decidedly unpalatable and overall non attractive press stories, and when the notions of power and patriarchy are challenged by some, it makes them unpopular with those who believe in maintaining the status quo. An example would be the campaign started by the MRAs“don’t be that girl”, or their recent spate of tweets calling themselves ‘meninsts’ – both parodies of women’s rights movements. An illustration of the fact that Professor Niladri R. Chatterjee, Associate Professor at University of Kalyani, points out: “patriarchy has run down feminism by putting out the notion that it is a bunch of humourless, always angry, men-deprived therefore men-hating women. Not very attractive. Not sexy.”

Lack of information, coupled with factors such as bad press and media propagated notoriety are just some of the many factors that contribute to women not identifying as or opposing feminism, according to Shailaditya Sen, Assistant Professor of English at Montclair State University. “Most people are not that informed about what feminism actually means (often thinking it means elevating women over men or simply man-hate), its history, how it has changed/developed over time, etc. So when they say they are not feminists, they mean they are not whatever vague and often inaccurate idea about feminism they have.” This would be Taylor Swift and Lady Gaga, proclaiming her love for men ‘instead’. Since there are a number of academic political approaches to feminism – and various philosophies, it is difficult to explore the full depth of these ideas, and just accept what the media ‘insta-feeds’ us.

Academic feminism, is to “disorder established patterns and to denaturalise what has come to be presented as eternal and unchanging,” says Nivedita Menon, in her book ‘Seeing Like A Feminist’. But this poses a threat to the organised social pattern, as media becomes only- and suddenly- preoccupied with feminism when it is untroublesome, and comes in packaging acceptable to the public’s tastes. This ‘upsetting’ form of feminism is subtly put down- once Alex of Modern Family starts questioning why the girls have to play nurses on Halloween, she is quickly made the butt of a joke, making her the uptight one who can’t ‘chill’ on a holiday. “Thanks to pop culture representations of feminism as necessarily militant and vocal (read loud), the image one conjures up when one tells someone they are feminists is one that is confrontational, if not ‘dangerous’.” (Arpita Ghosh)

But Alex is still a white character. A professor of law at Columbia, Kimberle Crenshaw states that “Women as a group experience many different forms of injustice, and the sexism they encounter interacts in complex ways with other systems of oppression. In contemporary terms, this is known as the problem of intersectionality.” Academic feminism seeks to incorporate the struggles of race, class, etc. yet this blatant lack of intersectionality in media’s version of feminism – in which only the thinnest and blondest vie for attention- is another major factor that drives people to distance themselves from a movement that ill fulfils their needs. Add to this the ‘traditional’ notion that women should be relegated to the kitchen- have you heard all the ‘go make me a sandwich‘ jokes yet?- and the gendered notion that pink is for pretty is for girls which most ads, and hence the notion of consumerism and popular culture focuses on, and it is difficult to break out of the grips of capitalist society and start advocating for change, or even thinking about it.

Sign Of A Positive Effect?

However, despite such claims, there are signs that advertisements are consciously making an effort to advocate gender equality, rather than the concept of a man doing a ‘woman’s job’ or vice versa. Ariel, a popular brand of detergent, launched its ‘Share the Load‘ campaign, which raised the question of the task of laundry being equally divided. Perhaps once the notion of gender equality enters the consciousness of society, the concept of feminism won’t be far behind.

Addressing the issue of the backlash against the feminist movement, Shailaditya points out that where there is a successful social movement, there is an inevitable backlash against its gains. He optimistically states that the formation of MRA groups and women (incorrectly) saying that they don’t need feminism is a positive sign, saying that while he thinks feminism is vital, “I’m not worried at how much it is criticized. I think that’s a sign that it is working, is evolving, and is going to keep improving and having more and more of a positive effect on the world.”

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  1. ItsJustMe

    Popular feminism and Academic feminism. Is this the joke of the year. A Satire piece?
    It is like saying good terrorism and bad terrorism.

  2. Guneet

    Ignoring the useless comment above, I feel this article misses the point.

    One, popular feminism needs to be rephrased here as ‘upper class feminism’. It’s isolated and harmful. It does not recognize the privilege it is born out of, and yes, it is taking over popular media.
    Two, academic feminism is a strange term (are you referring to the academic study of the different feminist movements, or academics who are feminists) because you seem to imply that feminism belongs to the academic world, which is certainly not true..

    Instead the comparison should be with the many movements led and organized by women in the last century or so. The real, tangible but varied feminisms that have fought for civil liberties, rights and freedoms of not just women, but all kinds of marginalised and oppressed communities. We are indeed standing on the shoulders of giants, mostly invisible to history books.Being loud, confrontational and militant is as much part of this as being thoughtful, nurturing and strategic. If anyone is – and it’s usually men or upper class / caste women who are – taken aback by this assertion then it’s pretty clear what side they have chosen.

    Some people don’t call themselves feminists because the injustices and violence that patriarchy spews out on society doesn’t really affect them.

    1. Monistaf

      Rights and freedoms of not just women, but all kinds of marginalized and oppressed communities!! The big farce of feminism has been that they stand for equality of the genders, but only focus on issues and rights of one gender, often at the cost of the other (498a, IPC 375, IPC 354, DV act of 2005 and many more). When was the last time a feminist stood up for disenfranchised men or their issues? If they did, they are not considered feminists anymore, they are labeled as misogynists.
      “women are now free make their own choices”, that is equality of opportunity.
      “the fact that less than five percent of women are top company CEOs”, that is outcome.

      Equality of opportunity, never has, nor ever will, translate to equality of outcome. How come no one is complaining that there is not 17% of blacks as CEO’s of companies. After all, they are 17% of the population of the USA. In India, how come we are not complaining that 20% of the CEO’s are not muslim and neither are 20% of the parliamentarians? Why is no feminist fighting for the inequities on the other side of the gender divide since they supposedly stand for equality. More than 87% of the homeless are men, close to 90% of the victims of all violent crimes are men, 97% of the war casualties are men, 99% of workplace deaths are men and so on. What feminists are really fighting for is privilege and entitlement since they are not happy with the outcome, in spite of the fact that they have equal opportunity to succeed.

  3. B Ind

    yeah 498a , DV, Fake rapes all these come in parcel of feminism…..

  4. Avinesh Saini

    Too much theory for me to properly digest.

  5. Amlan

    Very well written mam. Good Job…

  6. Piyush Jaiswal

    Legally, if an adulterous married woman spreads her legs apart to another man other than her husbands and conceives a. bastard illegitimate child out of it, even then according to act 112 , a man is forced for paying the maintainance of not just his adulterous characterless wife but also that of the bastard child which is not his own blood. And he isn't even allowed to conduct a DNA test on child. And add to that, several draconian laws like dv act, 498a,497(which protects an adulterous wife from any punishment) , together encourage women to commit adultery.

    Enough feminism, time to destroy it.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

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