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How Did Our Learnings From The HIV Outbreak Help Us Tackle Ebola?

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By Alexandra Calmy, Eric Goemaere and Gilles Van Cutsem, Doctors Without Borders:

This article was originally published here

On 6 January 2015, in an Ebola treatment centre run by Doctors Without Borders, a patient was discharged from the so-called ‘triage area’ with a certificate to attest that he was ‘not a case.’ However, he did present clinical signs of advanced HIV disease. When asked about his reaction to the HIV diagnosis, he replied, ‘I am so happy it may just be AIDS.’

We have come a long way from the first days of the AIDS epidemic. Since the beginning of the latest Ebola outbreak, several comparisons have been made between Ebola and HIV. Both viruses jumped species in the West African forest and both have generated panic and discrimination. Twenty-five years ago, with an initial death sentence, HIV caused fear and stigma to an extent that is still difficult to understand, with proposals in some countries to isolate patients in dedicated centres.

Some hypotheses suggest that the first patient became infected through contact with infected bush meat, such as a fruit bat or primate, followed by person-to-person transmission. Isolation and quarantine have been part of the public health response in many countries, including in the latest epidemic. When the first health workers returned from Ebola-affected countries, they were isolated and traced, even those who were asymptomatic, despite no scientific evidence supporting isolation of asymptomatic individuals. AIDS activists and HIV researchers were at the forefront in denouncing the paranoia that led to the isolation of health workers out of fear, having learnt long ago that HIV transmission cannot be limited through health-related discrimination. Nevertheless, there are still many countries that restrict travel for individuals with HIV. Similarly, stigma is affecting also the lives of health workers in West Africa. In Freetown, Sierra Leone, national staff working in the Prince of Wales treatment centres reported in many instances not to be able to tell their families that they were working with Ebola patients. Many convalescent patients volunteering to give plasma did so while hiding from family in Conakry: instead of heroes, they were outcasts. Among several other examples, survivors were unable to find a taxi willing to take them home and extended families were unwilling to care for orphans out of fear that they would bring Ebola back home. As with other infectious diseases, notably plague epidemics in the past centuries or, more recently, drug-resistant tuberculosis, the policy of quarantining patients has the potential to increase stigma and drive the epidemic underground.

ebola adThe mobilization of HIV-related actors in the fight against Ebola disease has been substantial. Many HIV researchers and clinicians have volunteered to work in treatment centres or clinical trial sites. Prominent HIV researchers have also presented on the Ebola response in several HIV conferences. Indeed, the results of the first trial assessing the efficacy of favipiravir were presented during the 2015 edition of the Annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections whose main objective is to share the latest studies on HIV/AIDS and related infectious diseases. Clearly, the Ebola outbreak has resonated strongly with HIV actors because of numerous similarities and lessons that can potentially be drawn from HIV to support the Ebola response. Even the HIV prevention ABC strategy (Abstinence, Be faithful and use Condom) has been twisted to fit with the Ebola prevention messages (Avoid Body Contact) in Sierra Leone. Interestingly, before a cure for syphilis was available, this type of poster campaign was also used as a weapon in the fight against the illness.

According to the WHO, many health workers have suffered from the epidemic with more than 800 dying from Ebola disease. Although personal protective equipment can prevent accidental exposure, the exact risk assessment for some exposures (e.g. contact of an infectious material with intact skin) is unclear and post-exposure prophylaxis is unavailable for many local health workers in the three affected countries.

By contrast with HIV, Ebola patients with no clinical symptoms do not transmit the virus. The transmission window is also short and the incubation period is no longer than 21 days. Therefore, the ability to contain the spread of the disease would appear to be easier and contact tracing is part of the epidemic fight. But this raises other questions. To what extent will the fight against the epidemic alleviate the need to protect the confidentiality of affected patients and families? How do quarantine measures affect the household? Another lesson learned from HIV is the paramount importance of involving the communities in the fight against the disease. Innovative ways of involving the community and peer educators have proven very effective in the HIV field. As an example, Ebola survivors with a persistent immunity have been involved as caregivers in the care of young children in some Ebola treatment centres and have been critical in providing essential quality healthcare.

An Ebola survivor has been quarantined in India after his semen tested positive for the virus. The latest patient diagnosed with Ebola in Liberia is the wife of a cured patient. There is a theoretical plausibility for sexual transmission of Ebola virus. However, further research is needed to consider if, and if yes, to what extent, sexual activity contributes to the epidemic in order to inform individuals with regards to avoiding acquisition or transmission by those recovering from Ebola virus disease.

Ebola causes a severe, often fatal disease, and timely diagnosis is critical both for individual benefit and public health concerns. For example, the early symptoms of Ebola infection are difficult to distinguish from malaria, influenza or typhoid fever. In August 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization for an Ebola diagnostic test developed by the Department of Defense, the Ebola Zaire Target 1 (EZ1) real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan) assay. The use of rapid tests should improve the detection of cases and help control the Ebola epidemic in the same way that large-scale HIV testing helps to curb the HIV epidemic by promoting rapid access to prevention and treatment.

Access to antiretroviral drugs has been a 15-year battle and 12 million individuals are now on anti-HIV drugs worldwide. The availability of an effective treatment was a critical factor in increasing the uptake of testing and enhanced health behaviour as evidenced by low test uptake when access to antiretroviral therapy was scarce. Early phase of favipiravir and blood-based therapy (’convalescent’ plasma) trials started recently in Guinea. The admission rate suddenly increased in these sites, possibly because of the changing paradigm of the treatment centres (from isolation to treatment). How is it possible to speed up the access to antiviral drugs in the Ebola setting?

In the case of Ebola disease, the determinant of access to quality care appears to differ from HIV. First, nearly all patients treated in high-income countries had accessed experimental drugs. Despite the WHO declaration stating that it would be ethical to offer unproven interventions as potential treatment or prevention in the current context (11 August 2014), none of these drugs were used in African treatment centres until late 2014. The design of such a clinical trial for an innovative intervention, such as immune blood transfusion or ZMapp (Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc., San Diego, California, USA) led to debate about whether a placebo-controlled trial in the context of a disease with at best a 50% case fatality rate was ethical. Although the first anti-HIV drugs had been compared with placebo in initial trials, the time taken to approve them was contested by treatment activists who were successful in ensuring fast track approval. Almost all clinical trials since then have tested one drug against another. However, the major difference between the two diseases is the fact that no cure is in sight short term for HIV, but Ebola is a curable disease and several drugs may affect the disease outcome; the reconciliation of scientific fast tracks and ethical concerns is urgent.

syphillis posterThe controversy related to the methodology used for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs can be extended to the evaluation of vaccine efficacy. As the epidemic declines, is it a good use of resources or even ethical to expose volunteers to an experimental vaccine through a large phase III trial as the chance of being exposed to Ebola – and thus determining vaccine efficacy – will become almost zero? On the contrary, is it justifiable to mass vaccinate in a future epidemic based on the sole basis of a phase II trial? Vaccine trials just started now in all three countries will potentially lead to a new Ebola vaccine commercialization, which is still not the case in the HIV setting, despite more than two decades of research.

Point-of-care diagnostics, early antiviral treatment and vaccines will radically change the community approach to Ebola. Ebola has had an impact on both the use of healthcare facilities and specific HIV care. Recent studies have shown that the Ebola epidemic resulted in a major drop in attendance of general outpatient services, in new HIV-positive diagnosis and in new HIV-infected patients entering care. In most affected countries, access to basic care was dramatically impaired by the fear of accepting an Ebola patient in a healthcare facility. Both diseases affect all sectors of society and reach far beyond the healthcare system, ranging from economy to education, but also with an impact on cultural practices, such as circumcision for HIV and burials for Ebola. The fight against HIV has led to a massive increase in resources which have benefited health systems in resource-limited settings beyond vertical programmes. The mobilization of the international community around Ebola has the potential to similarly benefit health systems in West Africa, a region long abandoned after years of civil war. Let us not fail in the opportunity to succeed in post-Ebola recovery.

There are over 2 million Indians who are HIV positive, the key to tackling this is awareness. Here are 11 Facts About HIV/AIDS That You Must Know, If You Don’t Already

Featured image source: Reuters/Baz Ratner

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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