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“An Exercise In Futility”: The Reason India-Pakistan Talks On Kashmir Fail

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By Angad Mehta:

“East is east, and West is west, and never the twain shall meet,” is prescient advice when comprehending the bewildering saga of the India-Pakistan relationship. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of India and Pakistan had recently commenced after a hiatus of a few months, after the attack on the Indian Air Force base at Pathankot. But they were overtaken by a new environment in Kashmir, and the prism is back to potential enemy rather than potential friend. When the situation becomes comparatively cooler, they shall meet as potential friends again.

The relationship has been tumultuous, and it remains an enigma for the world and two countries alike. The continuing fascination of the citizens in each country with the other has been both a cause and a symptom of this. The intrigue of the ‘other’, the curiosity to inquire into life ‘there’ is central to the psyche of the Indian as well as the Pakistani mind. For the Indians, the relationship with the nation that left them and caused the Partition is tinged with overtones of rejection and grief. For the Pakistanis, the striking similarity in culture and the vibrancy of the economy and of the Indian public sphere is possibly a bittersweet reminder of the future that could have been.

The internal dynamics of Pakistan have resulted in a situation in which the effective control over foreign affairs and defense lies with the military establishment. And not only is there uncertainty over control vis-à-vis the military and the civilians, but it leads to the question of who should the Indians talk to. Every hope of a possible spring over the frigid heights of Kashmir has ended in unseasonal squalls. The Pakistani military maintains its dominance over Pakistani society through the bogeyman of the ‘other’, the threat on the eastern border, preferably on both, with the rise in tensions with the Ghani government in Kabul. The meta-narrative of Pakistani society provides the military establishment the avenue to coalesce society around its agenda and maintain its pre-eminent position in the Islamic Republic, as the ultimate guardian that has the overarching moral right to dismiss the civilian government if it serves the national interest.

However, to control the passions generated in the Pakistani consciousness and to prevent it from reaching the threshold of mass hysteria for war, the generals favour limited bilateral dialogue with India as a safety vent. To prevent an actual rapprochement and an atmosphere of cooperation, the generals order periodic attacks at soft targets in India that occur at the beginnings of an Indo-Pakistan concord, designed to force India to suspend dialogue due to un-resistible public pressure.

On the other hand, India has little motivation to engage with Pakistan. It has attempted to militarise the border and then forget about Pakistan, but the ceaseless inflow of terrorists and weapons forces its attention. As a status quo power in the region, it seeks nothing from Pakistan except peace to provide an environment for economic development. But the simmering boil benefits the establishments in India and Pakistan because the awareness against the enemy is an opportunity that can be exploited to divert public scrutiny. Thus, periodically, India gains occasional concessions such as at Ufa and at other instances Pakistan is able to show to its citizenry that it cannot be browbeaten by the overbearing neighbour. The delicate balance of insult and victory is carefully maintained and remains one of the defining characteristics of this special relationship.

The Pakistani policy has been to counter Indian domination of South Asia at every opportunity and it has consistently attempted to block SAARC initiatives that are undertaken with Indian technical and financial backing. It has sought as well to develop relations with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, erstwhile East Pakistan. Advocacy for the rights of the Kashmiris is trumpeted at every international forum possible, although to questionable effect. And thus the game continues anew. Neither can break off talks completely, but they cannot sustain them either.

Resolving the key issue of Kashmir is currently an unattainable objective and at least in this case “jaw jaw”, as negotiations were memorably described by Shashi Tharoor once, is an exercise in futility. And contrary to what some Pakistanis claim is the threat of invasion from an aggressive India under Modi, that would be highly unlikely. The last thing the BJP wants, or, at least, appears to, is more Muslims in India.

Featured image credit: Narendra Shrestha – Pool/Getty Images.
Banner image credit: Yasbant Negi/India Today Group/Getty Images.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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