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Review: An Insightful Book That Asks Uncomfortable But Important Questions On Nationalism

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By Shambhavi Saxena:

It has been four months since right-wing factions dragged Jawaharlal Nehru University through the proverbial mud. Accused of everything from being a terrorist cell to depleting the country’s stock of condoms, the varsity became the object of India’s ire, after ‘anti-national’ slogans were supposedly uttered on campus in February. What ensued was the most vigorous debate about Indian nationalism since the actual nationalist movement 70 years ago. And out of it all comes “On Nationalism.”

Composed of three essays by noted historian and JNU professor Emerita Romila Thapar, arts editor Sadanand Menon, and former Supreme Court advocate A. G. Noorani, the book tackles the separate but interlinked issues of sedition, nationalism and religious conflict in India.

It opens with Thapar’s reflections on what nationalism is, and what India’s experience of it has been. We all know the part about getting the British out, but it’s the part that followed which is of most interest. Thapar establishes that a ‘bad nationalism’ has been thriving in India, courtesy of the Hindu right wing. She also does a brilliant take-down of the fallacies of Hindutva ideologies. If they insist that Sanskrit was the dominant language in Ancient India, Thapar talks about how Prakrit was most-used. If they insist that Muslim rulers victimised Hindus, she talks about the lovely cultural exchange during the Mughal era. And she has a couple of interesting things to say about the very origins of Hinduism in the subcontinent.

Reading through her essay, you realize how important it is to keep revisiting the history of your nation, and pick apart the versions you’ve always been told are sacrosanct. So too is it with the history of our laws.

The essay that follows is Noorani’s case study of Sedition in India, from the days of British rule till now. Section 124A (sedition) has a lot in common with Section 377 – which criminalises homosexuality – both residue of a foreign power, both informed by European standards of morality. When the state slaps sedition charges on individuals like Kedar Nath Singh, Binayak Sen, Aseem Trivedi, Umar Khalid, Kanhaiya Kumar or Anirban Bhattacharya, it essentially demands an unthinking obedience of its citizens. Noorani reminds us that this is not unlike the conditions set by our colonisers back in 1870. The original wording of Section 124A actually targets those who insitgate ‘disaffection’ of the state! “[N]o democratic government with any self-respect would demand the affection of its citizens,” he writes, “ruling monarchs do.”

It’s an interesting comparison – between the ruling class then (the British) and the ruling class now (a right-wing government). It is also an ironic comparison, because the Hindu right continues its tirade against the Muslim monarchs in India’s past.

If Thapar’s essay all but decimates this idea, then Menon’s explains how much of the historic Hindu-Muslim enmity is manufactured – initially by the British, and then later by militant religious groups. Menon calls this process ‘cultural nationalism,’ which aims “to keep civil society in a state of constant agitation by subjecting it to constant attack.” He goes to explain how control over the nation’s historical, cultural and even moral narrative lies with upper-caste Hindu males. This deliberately excludes the perspective of all other communities, but especially of Dalits, Muslims and women. “In history, nothing stays ‘pure,'” writes Menon, an important reminder considering that conflicts over ‘purity’ and ‘pollution’ informs so much of India’s culture and history.

The question then raised is what kind of nationalism is founded on communal hatred, caste-based violence and varying levels of misogyny? Quite obviously a bad, myopic and self-servicing one that has no place in a 21st century democracy.

The book steers you towards several other questions that are uncomfortable, but necessary. The very validity of nationalism and nationhood was tested by the events in JNU. Was this the nation we owed our allegiance to, a nation where students, journalists, and free-thinkers of all sorts are gagged and even killed? You have to ask if you too were bound by an ideology that had gone mostly unquestioned in the last seven decades. Even as the discussion on ‘anti-nationals’ rose to mammoth proportions a few months ago, you have to ask if all of this wasn’t just a smokescreen for something else. You have to ask if, irony of ironies, ‘nationalism’ was the new ‘divide-and-rule’ policy for India.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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