By Kriti Rathore:
The youngest nation is in commotion because of the conflict between two tribes – Dinka and Nuer. These two tribes are also responsible for the countries ascendancy and improvement. While the president Salva Kiir is from the Dinka tribe, the Vice President is from the Nuer. United Nations forces have been deployed in South Sudan for the protection of civilians and that is what they have been trying to do since South Sudan became independent in the year 2011.
According to reports, more than 300 people have been killed in the conflict. However, residents of Juba and locals have confirmed a much higher death toll. Near about 45,000 internally displaced people have found shelter under the protection of UN peacekeepers. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon wants the Security Council to take three important steps. These include imposing an arms embargo, placing more targeted sanctions on leaders and bolstering the 12,000-strong UN peacekeeping force. What is next for South Sudan? Is there any hope for peace or is a peace deal already dead?
A comprehensive peace agreement was signed by the both parties in the year 2015. Recently, the Vice President landed safely at the UN campus and decided to work with the president (Salva Kiir) in serenity and accord. The UNMISS (United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan) campus welcomed him with zeal and enthusiasm. Things were smooth until bullets and bombs were exchanged between the two armies loyal to either side. According to a UN staff member, UN staff had to literally hide under their beds to avoid being hit by bullets. Bulletproof jackets were given to them. They took shelter in the bunkers for most of the time during the past few days.
It is a known fact that women and children are the most affected ones. Murders, looting, rapes are what the conflict has led to. The World Food Programme had a stock in Juba that could have fed at least 2.2 lakh people for a month. However, the military did not spare this either. The whole of the warehouse has been raided which could have been used in times of crisis. Even a foreigner working with an NGO on condition of anonymity has claimed that she had been kidnapped by the army and released after 10 long hours. Those ten hours were more than ten years for her as she was badly harassed.
We must be grateful to the Indian government for taking immediate steps for the evacuation of Indians stranded in South Sudan. The mission has been named ‘Operation Sankat Mochan’. The brave step has been taken by the Ministry of External Affairs under the supervision of General V.K. Singh whereby two C17 aircrafts were sent to the conflict-hit country. This operation is basically for Indians residing in or working outside the UN campus in South Sudan. Approximately 150 Indians (non-UN staff) agreed to board the flight for India. During the second airlift session, many of them did not want to leave. Employment and business concerns were the main reasons that came up for the refusal to leave. Besides, the cost of living in South Sudan for Indians is very low.
The civilians here, however, seem hungry for each other’s lives. Bullets are sold in the market openly and most of the residents carry AK-47 rifles and fire them in case of a brawl. For the outside world, the fighting here may appear to be scary but the people living seem to have gotten used to it.
Although there is a temporary calm in Juba, people are expecting that Riek Machar, the Vice President who has probably escaped from Juba, may mobilise his militia from his ethnic Nuer community to create disturbances in the states of Jonglei (capital Bor), Unity (capital Bentiu) and Upper Nile (capital Malakal). These are oil producing states of South Sudan and if fighting erupts in these states it will affect the production of oil. This will further bleed the already faltering economy of the country. The economy of the country is solely dependent on oil and 95% of its export income comes from it. If the production of oil is hampered it will spell economic doom for the country.
The country is already reeling under a high inflation rate. With no strong manufacturing base in the country, the people of South Sudan are largely dependent on agriculture for livelihood, which again is being impacted due to these regular conflicts and the people are not able to cultivate leading to poverty, hunger and malnutrition. In addition to the deteriorating exports, the imports from neighbouring countries like Kenya and Uganda, have suffered to a large extent leading to a shortage of goods and commodities in the markets and skyrocketing prices. Inflation is increasing by the day and the purchasing power of the people is going down. The South Sudanese pound has depreciated considerably during the last few years. The country is in such a bad shape that its political elite in Juba cancelled the celebration of Independence Day this year that falls on July 9 due to the shortage of money.
South Sudan is the newest nation. When it got independence on July 9, 2011, the international community had high expectations from this youngest country in the world. With an abundance of oil and other natural resources and the support of the international community, everybody foresaw a bright future for this nascent republic. But the country has squandered such goodwill and support in less than five years of its existence. The leadership of the country has failed its people. They seem not to be concerned about the suffering and hardships of its people and are busy pursuing their political agenda. It does not comprise of only two tribes. There are numerous other tribes. It will be unpardonable to spread terror in the name of the tribes as other people also have the right to live here peacefully. It does not belong only to the Dinka or Nuer. This country belongs to every South Sudanese who wants to live in peace and harmony. The time has come for the international community to come together and reign in the political leadership of the country through sanctions, trade embargoes, a ban on the purchase of weapons and political pressure.
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