- Syria is a west Asian country. It is surrounded by Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Jordon and Iraq.
- The civil war in Syria was started in 2011 and still going on. This war is regarded as most brutal conflict in the world.
- 2011 –
- In March 2011, this conflict started when peaceful protestors were marching on street against Assad’s regimes. This protest soon spread in Homas, Hama and Damascus. As the violence continued, the government began a massive military crackdown against protestors.
- In July 2011, the largest wing of Syrian movement was organized as Free Syrian Army(FSA) headed by Riad – Ali – Assad, a former Syrian Army Colonel.
- In March 2012, Arab League and UN attempted to implement ceasefire by negotiating between rebels groups and Assad government.
- For this purpose, Kofi Annan was appointed as UN-Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria.
- He provided a six point peace plan for ceasefire which is popularly known as Kofi Annan’s six-point peace plan.
- Assad government in Damascus had agreed but Syrian Armed forces attacked a number of towns and villages and summarily executed scores of people.
- Thus peace plan practically collapsed in June 2012 and UN mission was withdrawn from Syria and Annan officially resigned after this.
- In late 2013, Assad government crossed all red line and used Sarin gas(a chemical weapon) on the people in Damascus which killed upto 1400 civilians.
- After this UN appointed inspectors to investigate the matter of using chemical weapom. Inspectors confirmed that chemical weapons had been used in Syria but report did not say anything about who was responsible.
- During G20 summit on September 6, 2013, Russian president Putin and American president Obama discussed the ide of taking Syria’s chemical weapon under International control.
- Russia suggested Syria to give up his chemical weapons and Syrian foreign minister Walid – al – Moallem immediately agreed to accept the proposals.
- In 2014, an extremist branch of Al – Qaeda, ISIL(Islamic State of Iraq and Levant) entered in eastern Syria and rapidly captured vast Syrian ground and made Raqqa its capital.
- Later this group changed its name to ISIS.
- In late 2015, Russia intervened in Syria in favor of Assad regime for the first time in years.
- With the help of Russian air strikes, Assad regime was able to regain many parts of the country (Northern Syria) including Aleppo City.
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