India is one of countries in the world where child labour still prevails – that too, rampantly.
Article 21A of the Indian Constitution ensures the right to free and compulsory education to children. But then, why should these children work instead of studying? I doubt if the prescribed age bracket can actually aid in the betterment of students.
At 14, a child should ideally be in class 8 – that too, if they haven’t failed. Do you think a class 8 education is sufficient to enable these children to lead a comfortable life, today, especially when government schools clearly aren’t providing the best of education? In fact, to even join a vocational training programme, you would generally need a matriculation certificate. Given these realities, how can the government even boast about the right to education? Therefore, in my opinion, the government should do away with the age bracket in its right to education.
When asked about going to school, an eight-year-old boy who lives under the Andrews Ganj flyover, said, “I don’t go to school.” When his mother was asked about this, she said, “We don’t have enough money to live properly and eat. We live the life of nomads. Then, how can we think about their education?” Their condition is really pathetic and the boy plans to engage in labour work to support the family, a few years down the line.
In contrast, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, seems to be progressive. However, an article in The Hindu says that even the new act suffers from many problems. For one, it has drastically reduced the number of hazardous occupations from 83 to just mining, explosives, and occupations mentioned in the Factory Act. Furthermore, even the ones listed as hazardous can be removed, according to section 4 of the act – not by the legislature, but by government authorities at their own discretion.
The National Food Security Act, 2013, makes provisions for providing free mid-day meals in primary and upper primary government schools. As such, it is one of the largest programmes of its kind reaching out to 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000 schools.
But, despite all these government schemes and incentives, why does child labour still prevail? The answer is simple -improper implementation. After all, when it comes to implementation, the government machinery simply fails. And it is due to this reason that social welfare schemes fail to bring about the desired effects at the ground level.
When it comes to child labour in India, it is to be noted that poverty is the primary cause of this. According to a 2015 UN report, about 30 crore people live in extreme poverty. This poverty also contributes to ignorance among parents, which consequently forces children into labour.
High rates of unemployment in the past years have also led to the prevalence of child labour in India. So ,the government must take efficient methods to curb unemployment – because these are issues that later compound the problem of child labour.
Ignorance and lack of knowledge among these families leads to a hierarchical set up, which is highly resistant to changes. So, spreading social awareness among the parents seems to be a must. The children also need to be informed on the ill effects of working as labour from childhood, and attempts must be made to bring about a change in their lifestyles.
The practice of child labour bring about a lot of negative impacts on families and the society as a whole. The worst effects can be seen on the physical and mental well-being of these people. The children and their families are consequently are often led into the world of crime, which they use as a means to attain their otherwise unreachable desires and aspirations. To add to this, high levels of illiteracy and lack of guidance have led to the emergence of this unholy nexus between child labour and juvenile crimes.
A passive reception of these issues has never offered any great results. The government, with the support of the people, must ensure that these children can exercise their rights in a way that allows them to move their future in the right direction. For this, the government needs to take stock of the situation both before and after their laws. It also needs to ensure that the laws are properly implemented, with the help of officials who can ensure that the effects of the law reach every single person.
The society also needs to see to it that the government schemes and benefits actually reach the needy. After all, it is the society (as a whole) that becomes a victim of this menace.
Cases of child labour should be reported to the police. It is our responsibility to stop child labour, and instead help them with their education. As long as we do not incorporate them into the mainstream, the dream of ‘sabka saath, sabka vikas‘ will only be a distant one.