This post has been self-published on Youth Ki Awaaz by Bharvi Dasson. Just like them, anyone can publish on Youth Ki Awaaz.

From All India Muslim League to creation of Pakistan– Jinnah’s journey

More from Bharvi Dasson

EARLY LIFE

In Karachi on 25 December 1876 was born a son to Mithibai and Jenabai named Mohammed Ali Jennabai, later known as Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Kathiawar. Mohammed Ali’s primary education was not formal, a teacher came to his house in Karachi to teach him Gujarati his mother tongue. He completed his rest of schooling at the Church Mission School of Karachi. According to the customs then followed, Ali was married to Emi Bai. She was eleven and he was sixteen in the year 1892.

In the first week of November 1892, Ali left for London to pursue his higher studies, initially to learn the intricacies of shipping but later he developed an interest in Law. The Karachi born – Kathiawari youth felt greatly alone in the strange land, troubled by the cold weather and stammering amidst the fluent English speaking men. He sat for his Bar admission test in 1893 and enrolled in Lincoln’s Inn, England.

In London, Dadabhai Naroji became Jinnah’s inspiration and a benefactor. Jinnah became a regular audience of House of commons’ proceedings, as Dada Bhai was elected  to the House of Commons in 1892. Fatima Jinnah his sister recalling the days said “My brother said to me, when I learnt that Lord Salisbury in one of his speeches had ridiculed Dada as a ‘black man’, furiously he replied if Dadabhoy was black I was blacker.”

BEGINNING OF LEGAL CAREER

After completing his education in 1896, he returned to India and not Karachi. He enrolled in the High Court of judicature in Bombay on 24 August 1896. At the age of 20, his litigation career marked its inception with hundred difficulties. Syed Pirzada has said in a film in part of Jinnah’s life that ‘Jinnah used to say, I had a very bad time, I did not have enough money to travel by bus or tram so I used to walk for most of the time’.

Jinnah’s professional legal career had begun and soon he became unsurpassable at the Bombay Bar. His great dedication and interest in law was marked by irreproachable integrity. His political life began along with his legal practices.

ENTRY INTO POLITICS

The Bombay congress was dominated by the Parsi groups as they had benefit of English language education despite the supremacy, Congress banked upon Goapl Krishna Gokhale and Jinnah to counter balance leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, whose nationalism was then considered to be Hindu centric.

Jinnah entered politics in 1906 session of the Indian national congress held in Calcutta.  In which the party began to split, where Muslims were petioning for a share in the power, which was later caused by Simla delegation and others were advocating for Indian independence.

By the beginning of the 20th century Muslims planned and started demanding a separate electorate to preserve the Muslim identity rather than amalgamation in the  Indian nation. This demand was only criticized by one British officer, Harcourt Butler- deputy commissioner in Lucknow. British political necessity became to keep Muslims placated and away from Congress.

On 30 December  1906 members of the Mohammedan educational Conference changed to All India Muslim League (AIML). AIML remained a feedable infant for several years after being baptized, financially dependent on nawabs and princesses. Jinnah remained aloof from it. In the initial years, AIML failed to prove its effective existence in the 1910 elections.

With increasing politicization, democratization and the trend becoming more participatory, it became important that the national level political leader be connected to local political trends too. In 1913 Jinnah joined AIML when authoritatively assured that league was as devoted as the Congress party to the political emancipation of India.

Jinnah earned the title of the “best ambassador of Hindu – Muslim unity” an epithet coined by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. By 1914 Jinnah’s reputation as an all India leader had been fully established. At this juncture Jinnah aimed not only to maintain harmony between extremes and moderates but also Hindus and Muslims. It was his efforts that Congress and Muslim League began to hold their annual sessions together, 1915 session in Bombay and 1916 session in Lucknow.

In 1916 Jinnah was elected as the president of the Muslim League. Meanwhile, the Indian freedom and solidarity struggle witness a new force, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Both home rule and congress came under his sway. Opposed to Gandhi’s non cooperation movement and his Hindu approach towards politics, Jinnah left Muslim League and Congress in 1920.

The Calcutta Congress session of 1920 heralded the arrival of Gandhian era in Indian politics. Jinnah was clearly and adamantly advocating the ideas of Indian independence when his colleagues were not even ready for freedom of India. The role of judiciary, civil services and executive were all explained by Jinnah, lucidly in detail.

With the failure of Non-cooperation movement and the emergence of Hindu identity led to antagonism and Hindu – Muslim riots. At this stage Jinnah and Muslim league was overshadowed by Congress and the muslim leaders started curating their own parties.

Jinnah’s failure to bring about minor changes in the Nehru committee proposals (1928) over the separate electorate for Muslims, one third representation for Muslims in central legislature and the separation of predominantly Muslim Sindh region from rest of Bombay province. Many muslims became suspicious of his intentions and believed that he cannot safegaurd the Muslim interests. Indeed, the Muslim League was a house divided against itself.

Due to frustration and disappointment, on 17 March 1928 Jinnah withdrew from Muslim league delegation and conference and by May 1928 he left for England. Till 1934 he devoted himself to Privy Council.            When the constitutional changes were in process, Jinnah was persuaded to return to head the Muslim League.

The government of India Act 1935 opened the doors for the first general elections in 1937. The elections came as storm for the Muslim League as well as Congress. Congress was torn by internal dissensions at the top, Nehru’s European import of socialism worried the party and the principal lieutenants of Gandhi threatened resignation from working committee. Jinnah still believed a cooperation between Hindu and Muslims, but elections proved to be a turning point. Congress won the elections with absolute majority in six provinces  and League could not manage anything substantial. Congress members were hit with a stark reality, they did not win a single Muslim seat.

They decided not to include League’s members in formation of governments and all-Congress government were the result. Eventually the Hindu-Muslim ties worsened and Muslim discontent became boundless.

In his Transfer of Person in India, V.P Menon wrote: “The congress decided to have homogenous ministries on its own and chose Muslim ministers from among those who were members of the Congress party. This was the beginning of a serious rift between the Congress and the League and was factor which induced neutral Muslim opinion to turn to support of Jinnah.”

CREATOR OF PAKISTAN

In 1940 Muslim league session Lahore the first hand demand was partition of the country and creation of Muslim nation named Pakistan. Jinnah always believed in harmony of Muslims and Hindus, he himself was dubious about the idea of Pakistan, but reluctantly he accepted the truth that partition was the last resort to safeguard the Muslim interest. During Muslim League conference in 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal-poet and philosopher propounded the idea a spate land for Muslims.

On Jinnah’s insistence through negotiations and inflexible decisions, British government came up with partition plan. Pakistan was curated on 14 August 1947.

The subcontinent was partitioned in two independent nations, Hindu majority- India and Muslim majority-Pakistan. The greatest migration in human history began, with millions of Muslims, Hindu and Sikhs trekking in opposite directions. This terrifying outbreak of sectarian violence with Hindus and Sikhs and one side and Muslims on the other- a mutual genocide as unexpected as it was unprecedented.

The British scholar Yasmin Khan, in her acclaimed history “The Great Partition,” judges that Partition “stands testament to the follies of empire, which ruptures community evolution, distorts historical trajectories and forces violent state formation from societies that would otherwise have taken different—and unknowable—paths.”

By 1948 the great migration was about to end, the communal storm uprooted 15 million and two-three million died. The brutalities were worst women were raped, pregnant women had their breasts chopped off and babies hacked out of their bellies. Partition is a traumatic part of the Indian subcontinent, as the Holocaust is among Jews.

Jinnah a tough determined negotiator became the chief architect for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

 

You must be to comment.

More from Bharvi Dasson

Similar Posts

By Imran Ghazi

By Imran Ghazi

By Anish Bachchan

    If you do not receive an email within the next 5 mins, please check your spam box or email us at actnow@youthkiawaaz.com

      If you do not receive an email within the next 5 mins, please check your spam box or email us at actnow@youthkiawaaz.com

        If you do not receive an email within the next 5 mins, please check your spam box or email us at actnow@youthkiawaaz.com

        Wondering what to write about?

        Here are some topics to get you started

        Share your details to download the report.









        We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

        Share your details to download the report.









        We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

        An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

        Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

        Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

        The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

        Read more about his campaign.

        Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

        Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

        Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

        Read more about her campaign.

        MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

        With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

        Read more about her campaign. 

        A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

        As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

        Find out more about the campaign here.

        A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

        She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

        Read more about the campaign here.

        A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

        The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

        Read more about the campaign here.

        A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

        As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

        Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

        Find out more about her campaign here.

        Share your details to download the report.









        We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

        A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

        A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

        Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

        A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
        biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

        Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
        campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

        Sign up for the Youth Ki Awaaz Prime Ministerial Brief below