The Discovery of DNA and understanding of its Structure and functioning is among the greatest discoveries of the 19th century. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the universal blueprint for life on Earth. It is a molecule double helix in structure that stores the biological information mainly the genetic instructions used in the development, reproduction, growth and functioning of all known living organisms and several viruses. DNA protects living organisms from chronic diseases and also, it might be the causes for several crippling defects in the body of the living organisms. The discovery of DNA molecule along with the knowledge of blood groups has brought an enormous progress in the fields of medical technology. The major developments that benefited humans are in the field of genes identification that triggers majority of diseases and accordingly manufacturing drugs for treating such chronic diseases. In fact, the subsequent analysis of these genes in terms of the therapeutic treatment has influenced the medical science and will continue to make further developments in the future.
Why the discovery of the DNA structure is so important?
1. Diagnosis of Diseases and its Treatments:
The most important sector of DNA research is in the field of medical and genetics research. The ability to diagnose diseases at the early stages has been improved drastically. The diseases that were considered as lethal and whose treatment was largely unsuccessful in the past, the discovery of DNA has made it possible to assess patient’s genetic susceptibility to particular diseases that has opened an easier pathway to formulate brand new drugs for the treatment of patients suffering from any particular chronic disease.
2. Creation of human tissues and organs:
In sexual reproduction, the male and female create cells known as gametes with each having a set of 23 chromosomes. During fertilisation, the DNA of father unites with the mother’s DNA to create a unique set of total 46 new chromosomes and this is how the ancestor’s traits are passed to the offspring. The gender of the offspring is determined by a particular chromosome. The chromosome could be either X or Y. The two X chromosomes produce a female whereas XY chromosomes produce a male. After the egg is fertilized, it begins to divide. The different genes control how the cells will differentiate from each other and further developing the human tissues, organs & systems. Thus, the child’s paternity could be identified easily through the assessment of the DNA.
3. Revolutionization in the Forensic Science
DNA has played a crucial role in the field of forensic science. With the discovery of DNA, the innocence or guilt of a suspect being investigated for a crime could be determined to a great extent. Several times scarce evidence could yield vital clues regarding the perpetrator of a crime and most importantly, the identification of victims could be done easily, particularly, when the victim’s body can’t be recognised by the family or friends. Thus, the discovery of the DNA has revolutionized the entire field of forensic science.
4. Impact of DNA on Agriculture
The DNA has facilitated the breeders to breeding animals with better resistance to diseases and helped farmers to produce more healthy and nutritious crops.
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