How to Stop Corruption?
Corruption is one of the most disruptive problems faced by the world and it needs to stop without further damage to the humanity so as to have a better future for the coming generation.
India is one of the countries which are suffering due to the existence of Corruption. Impact of corruption is very hard on public life. This is more of awkward and defaming condition than being problematic. But it appears that the corruption is ever rising and unstoppable.
Further the people involved in corruption seem to be hiding themselves by blaming others. Even they are proud of themselves as they made more money in short time.
To worsen the condition further, those involved in corruption are able to get better promotions and opportunities.
People also have developed an opinion that it is the only way to get their work done. If not, the work will be pending for long or even might not be done.
Corruption—an important problem imposing political, economic, and environmental costs to societies around the world.
Corruption is a phenomenon involving many different aspects, and it is therefore hard to give a precise and comprehensive definition. However, at the core of most definitions of corruption is the idea that a corrupt act implies the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Classic examples include bribery, clientelism, and embezzlement. Other, often more subtle and sometimes even legal examples of corruption includes lobbying and patronage.
While long-run data on corruption is very limited, historical examples suggest that corruption has been a persistent feature of human societies over time and space. Two such examples are the sale of parliamentary seats in ‘rotten boroughs’ in England before the Reform Act of 1832, and ‘machine politics’ in the US at the turn of the 19th century (Aidt 2003).1
The unethical and often illegal nature of corruption makes measurement particularly complicated. Corruption data usually comes from either direct observation (e.g. law enforcement records and audit reports), or perception surveys (e.g. public opinion surveys, or expert assessments). In this entry we discuss data from both sources, and discuss their underlying limitations.
As we show, although precise corruption measurement is difficult, there is a clear correlation between perception and behavior; so available corruption data does provide valuable information that, when interpreted carefully, can both tell us something important about our world as well as contribute to the development of effective policies.
For example, the data from perception surveys suggests that corruption correlates with human development, and a number of studies exploiting rich data from law enforcement records have shown that education is an important element explaining this relationship. Specifically, the data provides support for the idea that voters with more education tend to be more willing and able to monitor public employees and to take action when these employees violate the law.
Corruption is sometimes hard to tackle precisely because it is common, so people perceive it to be a natural economic transaction: it is easier to act corruptly if there are many other individuals who think it is fine to be corrupt. This is the rationale behind ‘big-push’ policies that aim to shift norms and perceptions.
For those without money and connections, paying even small bribes to access basic public services such as public health or police, can have important consequences. In fact, petty corruption in the form of bribes often acts as a regressive tax, since the burden typically falls disproportionately on the poor.
Corruption is not something that only affects low income countries—and in fact, many high income countries have become increasingly aware of this in recent years.
There are many factors that simultaneously drive corruption and development. Education is an important case in point. A strong positive relationship: countries where people are more educated tend to have better scores in the Corruption Perception Index.
One of the most widely accepted mechanisms of controlling corruption is to ensure that those entrusted with power are held responsible for reporting their activities. This is the idea behind so-called ‘accountability’ measures against corruption. As we can see, people are less likely to pay bribes in countries where there are stronger institutions to support accountability.
A common policy prescription to fight corruption is to increase monitoring and punishments. The logic supporting such policies is straightforward: better monitoring and harsher punishments increase the expected cost of acting corruptly, so people rationally choose not to break the rules.
To test the extent to which monitoring and punishments effectively reduce corruption, economists often rely on ‘policy experiments’, where they administer these policies to ‘treatment groups’. Olken (2007)10 follows this approach, increasing the probability of central government audits from 4 percent to 100 percent (the ‘policy treatment’), in the context of Indonesian village road projects.
Olken (2007) compares the outcomes for villages that received this intervention with those that did not, and finds that audits significantly reduced missing expenditures, as measured by discrepancies between official project costs and an independent engineers’ estimates. The following visualization summarizes these results. The height of the bars shows the percent of expenditures that engineers found to be missing.
As we can see, missing expenditures were much lower in villages where audits were certain.
Olken (2007) provides further evidence of the extent to which officials in charge of road projects responded to private incentives: he finds that (i) audits were most effective when officials faced elections soon, and (ii) village elites shifted to nepotism (the practice of hiring family members), which is a form of corruption that was harder for audits to detect.
Effects of corruption on people:-
Lack of quality in services:
In a system with corruption there is no quality of service. To demand quality one might need to pay for it. This is seen in many areas like municipality, electricity, distribution of relief funds etc. If a person has to purchase a like medicine, due to corruption in education then the candidate after completion of his course will not like to provide quality health service if there is not enough remuneration for his service. Further candidates who do not have the ability can also get into the same seat by purchasing it. So though he becomes a medical practitioner, he may not be competent enough.
Lack of proper justice: Corruption in judiciary system, leads to improper justice. And the victims of offense might suffer. A crime may be proved as benefit of doubt due to lack of evidence or even the evidence erased. Due to corruption in the police system, the investigation process goes on for decades. This lets the culprits roam free and even perform more crimes. There are even chances that criminals due to old age due to delayed investigation. So it lead to “Justice delayed is justice denied.”
Chances of Unemployment: This we can see with an example. The private education and training institutes are given permits to start providing education. This permit is given based on the infrastructure and sufficient recruitment of eligible staff. Here there are good chances of corruption. The institute or college managements try to bribe the quality inspectors so as to get permits. Though there are no sufficient eligible staff these institutes get permission by the inspectors leading to unemployment. Instead of 10 faculty a college is run by 5. So, even if well qualified persons wish to get job there, they will not be offered. If there was no corruption by inspectors, then there would be chance for more employment.
Poor Health and hygiene: In countries with more corruption one can notice more health problems among people. There will be no fresh drinking water, proper roads, quality food grains supply, milk adulteration, etc.
These low quality services are all done to save money by the contractors and the officials who are involved. Even the medicine provided in hospitals for the hospitals are of sub-standard quality. So all these can contribute to ill health of common man.
Pollution: Pollution is mostly emitted in the form of water pollution, air pollution and land pollution. This pollution is from vehicles and factories. The governments have a monitor on this pollution by regular check of vehicle emissions and also industrial exhausts.
Corruption in the government department lets the industry people opt to release of untreated and harmful waste into rivers and air. If there is no corruption, there can be fair probes. Then the industry personnel will treat the waste such that it is less toxic and harmless to environment and people in it. So we can mean that corruption is also the main cause of pollution.
Accidents: Sanction of driving license without proper check of driving skills in the driver leads to accidents and death. Due to corruption, there are countries where one can driving license without any tests.
Failure of genuine research: Research by individuals needs government funding. Some of the funding agencies have corrupt officers. These people sanction the funds for research to those investigators who are ready to bribe them. In doing so, they do not sanction the funds to genuine and hardworking investigators. Thus the research and development will be lagging. This seems to be not a problem to the common public. But if we notice the resistance of microbes to drugs, we can know that there were no new compounds discovered in the past few decades for efficient treatment of resistant microbes.
Effects of corruption on Society:
Disregard for officials: People start disregarding the official involved in corruption by talking negatively about him. But when they have work with him or her, they again approach them by a thought that the work is done if some monetary benefits are provided. Disregard towards officials will also build distrust. Even lower grade officer will be disrespectful to higher grade officer. So even he may not obey his orders. There were even incidents where a lower grade police officer kidnapped higher grade officer for not offering him leave when asked.
Lack of respect for rulers: Rulers of the nation like president or prime ministers lose respect among the public. Respect is main criteria in social life. People go for voting during election not only with the desire to improve their living standards by the election winner but also with respect for the leader. If the politicians involve in corruption, people knowing this will lose respect for them and will not like to cast their vote for such politicians.
Lack of faith and trust on the governments: People vote to a ruler based on their faith in him/ her. But if found to be involved in corruption people lose faith in them and may not vote next time.
Aversion for joining the posts linked to corruption: Sincere, honest and hard working people develop aversion to apply for the post though they like to as they believe that they also need to be involved in corruption if they get into post.
Effects of corruption on Economy:-
Decrease in foreign investment: There are many incident where in foreign investments which were willing to come to India have gone back owing to heavy corruption in the government bodies.
Delay in growth: Due to desire to mint money and other unlawful benefits, the official who need to pass the clearances for projects or industries delay the process. A work which can be done in few day may be done in months time. This leads to delay in investments, starting of industries and also growth. Even if started, company growth hinders as every work linked to officials get delayed due to need to provide bribes or other benefits
Lack of development: Many new industries willing to get started in particular region change their plans if the region is unsuitable. If there are no proper roads, water and electricity, the companies do not wish to start up there. This hinders the economic progress of that region.
Differences in trade ratio’s: Some countries have inefficient standard control institutes. Or in other word these standard control institutes are corrupt that they can approve low quality products for sale in their country. Hence you can see countries manufacturing cheap products dump them in big markets. These countries can manufacture cheap quality products but cannot dump in countries with strict standard control institutes. They can do so only in countries with chances of corrupt officials in standard control. One best example is China products which can’t be just dumped into Europe and US markets. But can be done in Indian and African markets. So there arises trade deficit that these countries cannot manufacture their own products at cheaper price than those exporting to them. So if corruption is minimized than these countries will have less trade deficits in-terms of exports and imports with other countries and their economies can prosper.
If you see the history of the Telephone Department there was a lot of corruption in the department when it was the government department. One has to wait for years to get a BSNL connection. Even after getting the connection employees were demanding money for giving the connection. Also there were cases the employees taking bribes and the bills were reduced for the customers by stopping their meters. After the entry of private operators and the conversion of telephone department to public limited company everything has changed without any punishment to any employee. Now the corruption has almost nil in the BSNL. If you see the corruption in a department 80% of the employees will be taking the bribes. But the anti-corruption department will be catching only 1% of the corrupted people. So this was it is very difficult to stop corruption.
Many people think that the corruption will reduce if the punishment is given to those who are doing corruption .The corruption is caused due to both giver and taker. The corruption will be reduced when the competitiveness by converting government departments to public limited or privatized. Every department which linked to the public money should be privatized and the competitiveness should be brought in the departments just like BSNL. Then the corruption will be automatically come down of course a lot of other things also need to be done along with this which is getting discussed later in this article.
The corruption elimination should become motive for each and everybody of us. All of us should take it as an oath to eradicate it. Because many time we only offer bribes to finish our jobs early. If any competition exists people used to get advantage out of it by buying some of the officers involved. We should take it as a crime for shortcuts of the processes. If people stop giving bribes then automatically corruption will be eliminated.
Factors are many for this scourge which has seeped into everyday life of this country. However, we should not despair easily and much less, link it with our fate. Yes, India is a great nation, with its seemingly peculiar incongruent layers of materialistic forces and vagaries of emotional dimensions. Yes, as with human nature, we are also driven by greed and inhibited by panic. Tangible factors such as inequality of resources with people, and advantage one has over the other due to disparity of wealth and power, have rendered the common man to adopt any method to narrow the gap. They do not actually care much for adhering to ethics while pushing to bridge the gap. The tangible reasons are numerous, among these poverty reigns over almost all others.
A person ravaged by the cruelty of it will come to believe that ‘money is everything’, because he sees money that might deliver him from the clutches of perpetual poverty to a comfortable life.
Once he attains a life of comfort, he wishes for more. He sees the other rich people and their lifestyle; he desires to get to their level of opulence. How he gets there does not matter. It is the end that will justify the means. What faster medium than to become a party to corruption? Well if we think deeply, it’s the attitude of the individual that should count much to calibrate corruption. Not every poor is corrupt. Not every rich is corrupt.
What could be the cause having the most weightage? I believe it’s called ‘scarcity mentality’ versus ‘abundant mentality’. ‘Scarcity mentality’ is not necessarily attributed to the have-nots. On the other hand, ‘abundant mentality’ is not always the guiding force of the rich. Once we understand these and change our thought processes on these lines, I believe we may have an insight into corruption. And we might just begin to develop that ‘abundant mentality’. Corruption can only be stopped when each person thinks bad about corruption because it is not something that we can stop others from involving in corruption. They themselves have to realize the ill effects of corruption.
Another good method is the fear factor. When people are threatened with great threat people tend to submit. This fact can be applied carefully to stop corruption.
Don’t encourage corruption. Report whenever you find any corruption in your day to day life. Don’t take bribe as well as don’t give bribe. Teach good moral values to your children. By educating the illiterate. By implementing special agency to catch bribers. By having separate courts for this issue to punish immediately. Corruption must be eliminated first from ourselves then we should talk about the whole society.
The history of corruption in India is not new. Even during the regime of East India Company in 17th Century it was a serious issue. The economy has been running infected since then. To make India corruption free it is important to explore the root causes of corruption in India which includes excessive regulations, complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments infested with bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government controlled institutions. These features cater to the corruption on one hand and the lack of transparent laws and processes put the public at the receiving end. However, corruption varies from state to state and place to place, from man to man. Those who have the knowledge of rules and regulations find it easier to keep the corrupt away from indulging in corruption while for others it is difficult.
India has wide spread illiteracy. To weed out the corruption and to put the wheel of growth on right track, Education is the basic requirement. Suitable law requires to be passed to make it a fundamental right as well as fundamental duty of the state to impart education to each and every person in the state.
Make a positive approach to conclude – P S Bawa, Chair of Transparency International India, stated “Corruption is a hydra-headed monster and governments have to make efforts to tackle it from all sides. This can only happen if all stakeholders work together,” the efforts being taken by the watchdog to create awareness about corruption among people and steps being implemented to curb the menace have to be intensified to achieve a higher growth rate and improve the image of the country creating a better environment for investment and employment. India requires a transparent and effective policy implementation with more employment and business opportunities to curb corruption and move fast on the path of growth.
Main Causes of Corruption:-
5 Places Where Corruption Exists Most: –
BAN ENTRY OF CRIMINALS INTO POLITICS. THERE SHOULD BE NO CRIMINAL CANDIDATE IN ALL TYPE OF ELECTIONS. CORRUPT PERSONS MUST BE PUNISHED STRICTLY; ALL BLACK MONEY MUST BE SNATCHED FROM THEM, MOREOVER PENALTY SHOULD BE IMPOSED ON THEM. ALL LAWS IPC OR CRPC SHOULD BE REFRAMED OR REVIEWED ACCORDING TO CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES SO THAT A PERSON MAY GET JUSTICE HONESTLY IN TIME.
The below are some ways which can help in removing the Corruption:-
EDUCATION: With the help of education we can reduce corruption. According to a survey the least corrupt state is Kerala, because of Kerala has literacy rate is highest in India. It is due to unawareness in the field of law, public rights and procedures thereof that a common and an uneducated suffer out of the corrupt society. This suggests that if we are educated, we can understand our rights well. The first tool is ‘education’. With the help of education we can reduce corruption. According to a report by Transparency International, the least corrupt state is Kerala, the reason being that Kerala’s literacy rate is highest in India. So we can see how education effects education. In most of the states, normally a fairly large number of people are uneducated. Those who are uneducated do not know about the process, provisions and procedures through which they can get justice. Corrupt public servants try to make a fool of them and often demand bribes. It is due to unawareness in the field of law, public rights and procedures thereof that a common and an uneducated suffer out of the corrupt society. This suggests that if we are educated, we can understand our rights well.
Individual Contribution: Main cause of corruption is lack of values, student’s minds must be inculcated with values such as honesty, integrity, selflessness etc., we should be honest to ourselves. Until and unless we will not be honest, we can’t control corruption. If each of us is honest towards our profession, then corruption will automatically decrease. Ask for bills, even when you buy anything. Make it sure that the vendor also has a counter copy of the same.
Whenever you convey any message to authority, make it via registered mail or e-mail; else record the call and make sure you ask the name of the concerned with his/her employee id. Feel free to file RTIs. This can make many things move in right direction. Make it to use in a legislative way
Whenever you are fined, never give bribes; nor use political power. Ask the authority, in writing, to mention the lead time for a given task. If you forget it first time, file RTI for it.
Eligibility of politician: One can only become politician of he/she should not have any criminal record. If the members of the governing body are government officials, there will certainly be fewer reports of the criminal cases. The provision is that, if there is any case filed against a person then he would not be eligible for election. Unfortunately a fairly large number of them are a part of it. If the members of the governing body are government officials, there will certainly be fewer reports of the criminal cases. The reverse may be possible only when there are no more criminal politicians in our government. The provision is that, if there is any case filed against a person then he would not be eligible for election. But if we see 100 politicians then about 60% of those would have a criminal case against them. If these ‘criminal’ politicians are in charge of forming and implementing laws, what type of law would be formed, one can only guess! Thus during election, we should keep in mind the person for whom we shall not vote. In India there is a provision that no person as a criminal shall be allowed as a Member of Parliament or member of legislative. Unfortunately a fairly large number of them are a part of it.
Bring political parties under RTI : Currently, political parties are required to report only donations above ₹20,000 to Income Tax Department. Political parties are exempted from filing income tax returns and contributions to political parties are deductible from assesses total income. Thus, political parties keep no record of donations less than ₹20,000. Donations only in above of ₹20,000 are reported to the Election Commission. This is crucial because about 75% of donations to political parties fall into the below ₹20,000 category. Thus, there is no record of source of funds for almost 3/4th of the funds received.
RTI will affect the smooth functioning of political parties. Political rivals will start using RTI tool with malicious intent. Existing I-T provisions enough to ensure financial transparency.
Increase in digital and e-governance: Using CCTV in the govt offices and exposing those videos in the media. Also several case studies of e-government applications from developing countries report some impact on reducing corruption. Many governments have chosen to go on-line in departments such as customs, income tax, sales tax, and property tax which have a large interface with citizens or businesses and are perceived to be more corrupt.
Corruption treatment: That means, instruments which are in use, are not running properly. For example Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 came into force on 9th September, 1988. But corruption is still flourishing. Why? Because of weak actions and proceedings towards corrupt people. People don’t have any fear of this act and the court. The act may thus be revised for its better implementation. Lack of effective corruption treatment is another reason. That means, instruments which are in use, are not running properly. Despite the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, corruption is still flourishing. Why? Because of weak actions and proceedings towards corrupt people. People don’t have any fear of this act and the court. The act may thus be revised for its better implementation.
Transparent tax structure by clean and clear enforcement: Our direct taxes are no longer unreasonable, so there’s little excuse for trying to evade them. But there is an unhealthy trend in piling on surcharges on various pretexts. Also, there are tons of other taxes that can add up to quite a bit. Finally, there’s the larger question of how efficiently and honestly taxpayers’ money is put to use — when you see the state of government hospitals and schools, and rotten roads, you wonder where the money you paid as tax has gone.
Salary increase: This would minimize the ‘need’ for bribes. Their salaries could be bench-marked against corporate sector salaries. But higher salaries should be combined with exemplary punishment, including dismissal from service and a police case if an employee is caught indulging in corrupt practices. Mere transfer or suspension won’t do.
Police reforms and stronger judicial: This has been discussed for decades but there’s been no action. The recommendations for reforms are already there. Set a time frame for implementation. This will make the police not just a professional force that’s not at the beck and call of politicians, but also a trained one with in-built checks against developing vested interests. Today the situation often is that the investigator (police officer) is answerable to the person being investigated (politician). Also, separate the police into two wings: one for investigation and the other for maintaining law and order. The two functions are different and require different skill sets.
Blacklist corrupt businessmen: Private businesses caught indulging in corrupt practices or bribing officials should be blacklisted for, say, 10 years and be barred from government projects. In the category of corrupt practices would fall use of shoddy material — like road contractors who give one inch of tar when they are supposed to give four inches and the road crumbles after one monsoon. Bigger instances of private businesses cutting corners in public projects by colluding with corrupt officials should attract exemplary punishment.
Give equal representation to all castes/communities in all political positions and government jobs by reserving seats equally among all communities. Once there is reservation for every community and that’s fixed, no community can cry hoarse playing a victim card and hence voting on caste lines. Accountability can be set in all the government jobs with hire and fire policy. i.e., if a government servant is not doing his job well he can be fired. People will agree upon the firing of incompetent and corrupt officials if they know the seat is reserved for their caste/community, and another person of the same community will be placed into that position vacated. Hence there will be no cry for caste/community based harassment of when firing a corrupt govt official. Things will improve gradually.
Feedback Collection: – There would be mandatory anonymous feedback collection for every task done by every govt official. Personnel who consistently get poor ratings below a threshold must be fired periodically. This will induce fear among the govt officials and corruption will reduce to a great extent.
Direct Contact with Government: – We can reduce corruption by increasing direct contact between government and the governed. E-governance could help a lot towards this direction. In a conference on, “Effects of Good Governance and Human Rights “organised by National Human Right Commission, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam gave an example of the Delhi metro rail system and online railway reservation as good governance and said that all the lower courts should follow the example of the Supreme Court and High Court and make judgments available online. Similarly, Sivraj Patil said that the Right to information should be used for transparency. We have legal rights to know a lot of information. According to this act, (Right to Information act 2005), generally people should follow the procedure of law given to then when their work is not being implemented in a proper way in public services. This act is a great help in the order to control corruption.
Being Honest:- Lack of transparency and professional accountability is yet another big reason. We should be honest to ourselves. Until and unless we will not be honest, we can’t control corruption. If each of us is honest towards our profession, then corruption will automatically decrease. We need to pay attention towards professional accountability i.e., how much we are faithful and truthful towards our profession. Corruption may be controlled by handling five major professions: lekhpal, medical, revenue, police and judicial.
Investment in Security Infrastructure: – Camera in most govt offices is a must. In every ATM there are cameras to keep a watch on the public taking their money. Then why not government offices have cameras to have a watch on the employ performance. Even there are many employees who openly take bribe in presence of common men. This public bribery is due to confidence that public wants their work more than the amount they are paying to them as bribes.
Speed up the work process in govt institutes: Most corporate offices are in full-fledged running by 8-9 am. But the government offices start by 10 to 11 am and wind up by 3.30 to 4 pm with a lunch break of one & half hour in between. This indicates how much of commitment lies in the work and how fast the work goes on. If there are mistakes in the work or delay in the work, civilians have to run behind those workers to rectify or complete the work. In doing so they pay bribes to get the work done. This makes the chances of corruption more or else work is not done. So there should be accountability of daily work done in government works and targets to complete the work on time basis. Or else instead of being public servants, they tend to act as public bosses.
Make Media responsible and fix laws to be so: There are many major scams and corruption events involving media. Though the media is well aware of the corruption happening they stay silent due to their support for some political parties or else their owners get some monetary benefits from the rulers. Even there are many reporters who though come across some scam or corruption; they stay silent without revealing it for press for having received monetary benefits to do so. If media personnel are found to be guilty for not having exposed the scam or corruption intentionally, they have to be prosecuted and their license be withdrawn.
Verify the selection procedures: Many people compete for government jobs and in the process there are corruption happening in the selection of candidates for the posts. So let the selection criteria and procedure used be transparent and any misconduct from this should be punishable.
Also while allotment of natural resources for business companies; the selection of bids should be transparent. There should be online details with regards to the benefit to the government, the purchase price and even benefit to the company out of the deals. This will limit the corruption related to quid pro quo.
Keep inflation low: This is another factor for keeping corruption high and also persistent. Due to rise in prices, any amount of income seems to be insufficient. This inflation is a corruption involving politicians and businessmen. Businessmen try to raise the prices to sell their inventory or stock of goods at higher price. For this the politicians support them and are paid monetary or other benefits. This is a cheap business tactic but even the so called richest business magnets play this corruption game.
Speed up the judgment and increase the courts: Many cases of corruption take years to be given verdict. This delay in cases creates lack of fear for being corrupt and also huge time span for court trials gives sufficient time to make alterations in the witness. Establishing fast track courts and giving severe punishment for corruption practice will keep a control on corruption. Besides these there should be collective efforts from the public to prevent corruption.
Besides these there should be collective efforts from the public to prevent corruption.
Hope all the Officials of Government of India (Central and State) and every individual of our nation can and will definitely bring the much needed positive change in India.
The Government of India, The President of India, The Prime Minister of India should take effective measures to STOP all forms of Corruption from India. Both the Central & State Government of India and every individual of our nation should contribute so as to bring the much needed change in our country.
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From Mr. Asha Kanta Sharma