Shimla Agreement was taken place to decide future of South Asia after India – Bangladesh won over Pakistan. The decision taken out of the conference is called as Shimla Agreement. There is difference of opinion on whether India succeed or not ?
So, to answer this question, we have to understand India’s objective from the meeting first.
- India wanted lasting solutions to Kashmir issue or agreement which would constraint Pakistan from involving third parties like USA or China.
- Open up doors for new beginning in the relationship.
- To achieve this, India has to act with caution like not pushing Pak to wall and creating a revanchnist anti India regime.
- India do not want apply Varsailles Treaty on Pakistan. Versailles treaty was forced on Germany after the world war 1, which eventually led to the WW2. From taking lessons from this event, Government Of India didn’t want to humiliate or punish harshly to Pakistan.
- To achieve first objective, Indiadidn’t force Pakistan to convert Ceasefire Line as International Border, and accepted it as “Line Of Control”. Hereby India successfully delinked it from United Nation. And highlighted Kashmir as purely bilateral affairs.
Hence for greater objective of peace and prosperity in the region, Government Of India agreed to return PoW and land to Pakistan. However, Bangladesh was against it until Pakistan recognised Bangladesh. In 1974, Pakistan recognised Bangladesh and India returned PoW to Pakistan.
Hence, still here India was able to achieve its objectives successfully and diplomatically.
But events in Pakistan doesn’t led to ultimate aim of Shimla Agreement. These events were :
- Military took power in Pakistan after killing Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
- Next President of Pakistan Zia-ul-Haq used Afghan insurgency as a strategy to get wrapons from USA, which will be used against India.
So, due to this, it seems that India won war, but lost in agreement.