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Four Years Of Modi Government: An Economic Report Card

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With election season upon us, in this piece, I highlight the structural challenges that the Indian economy faces and what work the Modi government has done to tackle the problems within the competitive political framework of a multi-party democracy.


The news this week has been dominated to a large extent by the alleged Rafale scandal, the Kisan Kranti Andolan and the recent suppression of the erstwhile governing board of IL&FS, an Indian infrastructure corporation. These recent developments betray cronyism, financial mismanagement and frustrations resulting from prevailing economic inequality as well as the urban-rural divide. While the socio-economic development model that resulted as a consequence of the opening of the economy in 1991 has so far benefited India to a very large extent, it hasn’t yet reached all citizens in equal measure. The early investment cycle leading up to the latter part of the last decade resulted in comparisons between India and China, with the world seeing India as being able to compete with our eastern neighbour. Such comparisons were premature with the Chinese economy today more than four times the size of India’s. Unethical collusion between political and business elites, rampant graft and industry-wide financial mismanagement have led to the present situation where the Indian economic story is in the throes of an industrial trough phase. While India still continues to grow at almost 8% per annum, with favourable growth fundamentals of a young demographic and increasing worker productivity, the growth model needs structural revamping to take further advantage of these fundamentals. And to revive and further bolster the role of the private sector and help more evenly distribute economic growth. An Indian version of the ‘new deal’ is required to move India beyond the present situation. James Crabtree, former Financial Times India correspondent in his recent book, The Billionaire Raj compares India at present to the Gilded Age (late 19th century to early 20th century) of the United States, where there existed high wage growth and the creation of a class of nouveau riche alongside vast and abject poverty. The Gilded Age was a phrase coined by Mark Twain that satirised an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. In 2014, India saw Prime Minister Modi and his government as most capable to guide the country past the prevailing economic situation.


The prime minister campaigned on the platform of delivering ‘achhe din’, to fight graft, deliver efficient governance and to restore the go-go years that India saw in the previous decade of year on year 9% growth. Jayant Sinha, a minister in the incumbent government even went as far as comparing Narendra Modi to the 26th President of the United States, Teddy Roosevelt – a president who’s remembered as a successful trust buster and anti-corruption campaigner. The early optimism and expectations of big-bang reforms by the Modi government were scuttled with their inability to implement reforms to the land acquisition process as well as to India’s labour laws. However, investor confidence in India continued to be bullish with a buoyant stock market that continues till today. This investor confidence has been buttressed by a slew of progressive legislation such as the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Act, the Goods and Services Tax. In addition to the legislation, serious work in installing renewable energy capacity, road building and data access for all, due to Reliance Jio have acted as fundamental tailwinds to India’s march forward. At the same time, the Finance Ministry and the Reserve Bank of India kick started the all-important process of seriously identifying and dealing with the twin balance sheet problem – which had resulted from gross maladministration on the part of lenders. While the government via a recapitalisation of numerous banks has attempted to resolve the problem, there is certainly still a long way to go. In addition to the above, the passage of the Aadhar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016, and the recent upholding by the Supreme Court of India of key provisions of the act bode well for efficient social welfare deliveries in the near future.

While there have been numerous positives it’s important to highlight the glaring misses as well. One of the Prime Minister’s major campaign promises was tackling the black money problem, however, the government’s flagship policy initiative with regard to tackling black money turned out to be poorly planned and hastily implemented. While the move benefitted online payment companies tremendously, it did have a toll on the average Indian who struggles to earn even Rs. 10,000 a month. This experiment while touted as a surgical strike on all that ailed our economy was gradually seen as having a detrimental impact upon numerous small and medium enterprises upon which much of the informal part of the Indian economy is based. The much publicised and touted attempts to build up India’s industrial capacity and to create jobs for our young demographic have also not met with much success. Lack of achievement in this field has of course also been because of the dire state our lending authorities are in. All in all, on while the government hasn’t been able to deliver on their phantasmagorical promises of 2014, ample efforts have and are being made to provide Indian citizens with a ‘new deal’ albeit within the competitive political constraints of a democratic system.


Accepting that graft at the highest levels has fallen almost entirely and that reasonable efforts are being made for national progress to outweigh the serious constraints imposed on it by electoral politics, there is always a fear of the reverse. This is given that electoral politics in India, a lower middle income country are often replete with examples of populist policies such as loan waivers and giveaways like laptops and televisions, that in turn impose serious fiscal pressures. Micheal Walton, Professor at the Harvard Kennedy School – in a recent article in the Business Standard posed the question, “Can India Escape a Crony Populism Trap?” Walton states that while as above stated, high-level corruption has declined but the real plutocrats, India’s top billionaires, have continued to do fairly well over the past four years, with Mukesh Ambani’s wealth increasing 115% and Gautam Adani’s by 250%. Walton goes on to state, that with regard to political finance and investment deals, while cronyism in the short term can survive it eventually becomes very inefficient leading to major rent extractions. At the same time, the government’s problems are only compounded with its practice of the politics of exclusion. We’ve also seen a rise in civic and rural unrest on the planks of community reservations and preferential treatment. This socio-economic mix of challenges facing the India of today are serious and need to be dealt with if we even want to shadow the moderately prosperous society that China aspires to in the coming few years.


A reading of James Crabtree’s latest work has been most helpful to give structure and to properly recognise not only the present juncture India is at but also the historical forces that have shaped our recent past. “The decades that followed America’s Gilded Age were known as the Progressive Era. This era had a lasting and positive effect, both at home and abroad. Anti-corruption campaigns cleaned up politics. Monopolies were broken up. The middle-class exerted control over government. Prosperity was shared more broadly. Today, India stands at the crossroads of what sort of superpower it will become. As democracy falters in the West, so its future in India has never been more critical[1].”

[1] James Crabtree, The Billionaire Raj: Page – XXV

Yash Johri (@yashjohri06) is presently a second-year student at the Faculty of Law, Delhi University. He is also an alumnus of Georgetown University, Washington D.C.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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