This post has been self-published on Youth Ki Awaaz by Jay Velury. Just like them, anyone can publish on Youth Ki Awaaz.

What Is The Real Truth Behind The Annexation Of Hyderabad?

More from Jay Velury

Hyderabad was annexed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s government, which enjoyed the confidence of the Parliament (Constituent Assembly). Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) was the Governor General and hence the supreme commander of the armed forces. Baldev Singh was the Defense Minister. There is absolutely no truth in the  claim that Nehru did not want to annex Hyderabad or that he tried to stop Sardar Patel from doing so. More over,  Home Minister Sardar Patel had no authority to do what is being attributed to him.

One crucial fact that never gets mentioned in any of the claims, books, blogs and articles on the subject was the Ongoing Kashmir War! Kashmir war was nearing one-year anniversary when India launched Operation Polo and annexed Hyderabad in September 1948. That Kashmir War would go on for another 4 months until January 1949.  This piece of information not only explains Jawaharlal Nehru’s supposed reservations over Hyderabad but also Sardar Patel’s lack of interest over the Kingdom of Jammu Kashmir.

From Vijay Rupani to Narendra Modi, they have all recently shared their wisdom that one would need a visa to visit Hyderabad but for Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. This was meant to insult Jawaharlal Nehru as well as to rob the contributions of a whole generation of leaders of that time and hand it over to their fellow Gujarati. The Princely State of Hyderabad was 90% Hindu and completely enclosed in Indian Territory and hence going nowhere. That was the reason behind Nehru government prioritizing more urgent matters of aftermath of Partition and defense of Kashmir.

Slighting Telangana

Narratives of Sardar Patel’s admirers regarding Hyderabad State are evidence of their ignorance of geography, history as well as civics. A Chief Minister, a Deputy Prime Minister (LK Advani) and even a Prime Minister saying these should be of serious concern. Local BJP leaders in Telangana repeatedly make these claims and so do the national leaders during their visits to get the cheers of their mindless supporters.

Men, women and children of Telangana (and other parts of erstwhile Hyderabad State) resisted Razakars with guns as well as Satyagraha. The literature of Suddala Hanumanthu and Dasarathi Rangachaya has inspired generations of freedom lovers. Congress leaders like Swami Ramanad Tirtha were incarcerated. Help came from neighboring Madras Province as well as Bombay Province. Many activists in Telugu speaking regions of Madras sold their properties to fund the freedom struggle in Hyderabad. While Sardar Patel issued threats from safety of Delhi and Amritsar, Tanguturi Prakasam (earlier Chief Minister of Madras State) walked up to Qasim Rizvi right in Hyderabad and warned him. In the end, it was Governor General Rajaji (another earlier Chief Minister of Madras State) who sent the army and liberated Hyderabad. About a year later, Jawaharlal Nehru would try to make Rajaji the first President of Republic of India, but this position was given to Rajendra Prasad!

Sardar Patel’s Role In Hyderabad

Sardar Patel was 73 years old and kept poor health. Patel did not enter Hyderabad until after the success of Operation Polo and hence had no firsthand information any more than Nehru. In March 1948, Sardar Patel suffered heart attack and was resting in Bombay and Dehradun. In VP Menon’s narrative, Patel does not reappear until August 1948. So, Nehru should have had more information about Hyderabad situation than Patel did. Sardar Patel’s anxiety over Hyderabad was possibly influenced by likes of VP Menon who negotiated with Nizam’s entourage that was hostile and KM Munshi who was kept under undeclared house arrest by Qasim Rizvi. While the legitimacy of their arguments is not in question, neither VP Menon nor KM Munshi nor Sardar Patel possessed the  comprehension of Jawaharlal Nehru, nor did they had any responsibility for the consequences. By VP Menon’s own admission, he did not know anything about the happenings in Kashmir after December 1947.

Why The Delay In Annexing Hyderabad?

As long as issues of Kashmir, Hyderabad, Junagarh, “Jeep Scandal”, Princely States, freedom struggle and Partition are viewed independently in isolation, it is impossible to understand why certain things happened in a certain way.  All these events took place in the same time frame and hence are interlinked.

Almost all the 560 Princely States complied with Mountbatten’s deadline of August 15, 1947 and signed the Instruments of Accession. Sardar Patel’s Ministry of States had its hands full in getting the monarchs appoint “responsible governments” and help transfer of power. In addition, entire nation was being ravaged by post Partition riots and mass migration which demanded Sardar Patel’s attention since he was also the Home Minister

Nobody outside Hyderabad including Sardar Patel had any urgency in August 1947, according his own lieutenant VP Menon! VP Menon wrote that both Patel and Nehru left it up to Mountbatten to negotiate with Nizam of Hyderabad.  Thus, they bought time for more urgent matters elsewhere.

Meanwhile, VK Krishna Menon, then High Commissioner to UK, effectively stopped the European countries from supplying arms to Hyderabad.  VK Krishna Menon also procured jeeps for invasion of Hyderabad, the fate of which I discussed in my earlier blog.

Remember that there were two other States within the geography of India that still did not sign accession by the time of independence: Junagarh and Kashmir. Within a month of Partition, Junagarh suddenly became the problem as the Nawab acceded to Pakistan, violating the requirement of geographic contiguity laid down by Mountbatten.  Contrary to the claims, Sardar Patel never had any interest in Kashmir and that issue will be discussed in my future blogs.

Nizam’s Desire For Third Dominion

Nizam Mir Osman Ali’s desire for independence or Razakars’ desire to merge with Pakistan are often cited as causes of urgency which Nehru supposedly ignored. As for independence and third dominion, every one of the rulers of 560 Princely States had that desire at some point. Nizam too wanted to remain independent of both India and Pakistan just the way Kashmir’s Hari Singh or Bhopal’s Hamidullah Khan had hoped. Like Hari Singh, Osman Ali was also not averse to taking help from either of India and Pakistan but unlike Nawab of Junagarh, Hyderabad Nizam never had any desire to merge with Pakistan. So, neither was Nizam unique in that desire for third dominion nor was that option on the table for anybody according to Indian Independence Act of 1947.

LK Advaniji’s claim of Nehru wanting to refer Hyderabad to United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is laughable.  Firstly, Nizam Osman Ali had already referred the matter to UNSC. Secondly, unlike Jammu Kashmir, not a single inch of Hyderabad ever came under occupation of Pakistan and hence UNSC could be of no use for India in case of Hyderabad nor Junagarh for that matter.

Standstill Agreement

In November 1947, with help from Mountbatten, Patel’s Ministry of States had negotiated the Standstill Agreement with Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan. Along with the agreement, Nizam Osman Ali also gave a letter to Mountbatten agreeing not to accede to Pakistan. This was tabled by Sardar Patel in the Constituent Assembly on November 29 and sent to Mountbatten for signature.  The Standstill Agreement transferred the Defense and Foreign Affairs to India for one year until November 1948. It is thus obvious that Nizam was neither “independent” nor could have acceded to Pakistan in September 1948 when India invaded. Apart from ongoing Kashmir War, another reason for hesitation to invade Hyderabad could be that India was legally obligated to wait until November 1948.

India invading Hyderabad in September 1948 before expiry of Standstill Agreement was no different from Pakistan invading Kashmir with which Pakistan had a Standstill Agreement. It was however true that the Razakars violated the Standstill Agreement first and did so repeatedly while Kashmir did no such thing. But if Nehru waited until he had such strong evidence against Razakars, it should be expected and appreciated. Narrative of some MKK Nair who LK Advani seems to hold in esteem that Nehru was angered because of one British nun is neither true nor rational. Such claim only proves Advaniji’s immaturity and credulity. VP Menon himself never made any such claims.

Junagarh

Narendra Modiji’s claims of visa requirement to visit Somnath and Gir but for Sardar Patel will prove comical if one already read VP Menon’s book Integration of Indian States. VP Menon wrote that Governor General Mountbatten declared the Promissory Notes worth Rs. 1,29,34,700 that were taken away by the Nawab when he fled to Pakistan as “lost” and issued an ordinance authorizing RBI issue duplicate documents in favor of Indian government. This is an example of the events that took place which should shed light on the involvement of many others in addition to Sardar Patel. Only delusional ones can assume that Sardar Patel managed without any initiative and help from Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, let alone against the wishes of the later. Many local leaders like UN Dhebar, Samaldas Gandhi, Dayashankar Dave and Pushpavati Mehta were instrumental.

 

You must be to comment.

More from Jay Velury

Similar Posts

By Samrat Ashish

By dinesh tiwari

By Diversity Dialogue

Wondering what to write about?

Here are some topics to get you started

Share your details to download the report.









We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

Share your details to download the report.









We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

Share your details to download the report.









We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

Sign up for the Youth Ki Awaaz Prime Ministerial Brief below