Could Applying Herbert Simon’s Theory Help Improve India’s Voter Turnout?

Voter awareness should encompass not only the ‘why’ and ‘what’ aspects, but also pertain to the ‘how’ aspect of our priceless right to vote.

“So, how was the experience?” I asked my friends, aware that they were first-time voters.

“I was off to the marines,” replied one friend, “Sab saale ek jaise, kisko vote doon samajh nahi aata.” (Every politician is as bad as the other, I’m confused who to vote for.)

“Why bother to step out and vote when you know the pathetic status quo would be maintained, no matter whoever is your MLA or whichever party comes to power,” stated another, adding that he was relaxing at home.

The low polling recorded in the recently concluded Maharashtra and Haryana assembly elections is worrisome for our democracy. As per the data shared by the Election Commission of India, the voter turnouts for Maharashtra and Haryana were 60.5% and 65% respectively, with Mumbai recording as low as a 46% turnout. In the 2014 Maharashtra elections, 63.08% of the electors had cast their votes, while for Haryana it was 76%.

This lack of enthusiasm among the voters depicts their lack of credence in electoral politics, many of them impuissant to decide which candidate to vote for, resulting in skipping of their precious right to vote. The political education of the masses and mainly our youngsters is the need of the hour. Mere celebrity endorsements and advertisements would have no appeal unless the voters are persuaded about the need to vote, made conscious about the invaluable right they possess and guided about how they should exercise it.

Simon And His Decision-Making Model

Here, the ‘bounded rationality model of the decision-making process’ comes into the picture. Herbert Simon, cognitive psychologist and Nobel Laureate, was the pioneer of this model which deals with the administrative person in an organisation.

He defined decision making as ‘the optimum rational choice between alternative courses of actions.’ The three principal phases of the decision-making process are:

1) Intelligence activity: what is the problem?

2) Design activity: what are the alternatives?

3) Choice activity: which alternative is best?

Human behaviour is characterised by bounded rationality (limited rationality) leading to ‘satisficing decisions’ (satisfaction + sufficing) as against ‘maximising’ decisions (optimising decisions). Various factors like time and cost constraints, environmental forces, information factors, nature of organisational objectives, etc. lead to ‘satisficing’ or ‘good enough’ decisions.

The Election Scenario

We are the ‘administrative citizens’ in this ‘organisational nation’ and hence, Simon’s model could be linked to the election scenario. The three principal phases would be:

1) Intelligence activity: to choose a representative who would formulate policies and legislate for our holistic economic, political and socio-cultural development.

2) Design activity: to know the contenders in the fray, the political parties they belong to, their backgrounds, experiences, developmental works and other relevant parameters.

3) Choice activity: to choose the ‘best available candidate.’

Total rationality in voter behaviour is impossible. Many constraints like lack of details, unavailability of information, unawareness about the nature of candidates do exist and hence ‘cent per cent best’ is rather difficult, as a result, a ‘satisficing decision’ has to be taken.

Thus, voter education has to focus on being multivariate, encouraging not only to vote but also ushering one’s mind and rationale while doing so. The electoral literacy clubs, voter awareness forums and the chunav pathshala initiatives of the Election Commission should not just remain on paper, but be implemented properly.

The founding fathers of our nation envisioned a participatory democracy and to effectuate that, the provision of universal adult suffrage was instated in the constitution. Votes are the building blocks of democracy and every vote counts, indeed. It is not just about the right to vote, it also pertains to the duty to vote.

Ultimately it is the government which we elect, that administers us right from womb to tomb. India would never be a superpower without its citizens being responsible, well informed and dutiful. In my opinion, abstaining from voting amounts to insulting the vision of our founding fathers.

Featured image for representative purpose only.
Featured image source: Public.Resource.Org/Flickr.
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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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