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Not All Gloom And Doom For The Climate Crisis: Expert Panel At YKA Summit

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WhyOnEarth logo mobEditor’s Note: Are you bothered by the drastic changes in our climate, causing extreme weather events and calamities such as the Kerala Floods? #WhyOnEarth aims to take the truth to the people with stories, experiences, opinions and revelations about the climate change reality that you should know, and act on. Have a story to share? Click here and publish.

The climate crisis has undoubtedly become one of the most urgent crises of our times. Gone are the days when the narrative can stand at taking shorter showers and planting more trees. The need of the hour is to reduce emissions and ensure that the rising global temperature is stabilised.

A chief ask right now, is to ensure that countries around the world, especially the top 15 highest emitters, bring down their carbon emissions to zero. India, which is the third largest emitter has a significant role to play. Where do we stand today and what is the action needed to get to this ideal? A panel of experts from across industries held a critical discussion on the issue at the Youth Ki Awaaz Summit last week, leaving us with important takeaways.

The panel was moderated by Jayashree Nandi, Environment Correspondent with the Hindustan Times, with panelists Ridhima Pandey, one of the 16 teenagers who sued 5 governments over their lack of action on climate, Naim Keruwala, Programme Manager, CITIIS (City Investments To Innovate, Integrate and Sustain) under the government’s Smart Cities Initiative, Hitesh Kataria, Manager – Group Sustainability at Mahindra and Tania Devaiah, a climate change campaigner and activist. Here’s what they had to say:

Why Zero Emissions And The Ongoing International Debate

Jayashree Nandi started the panel discussion with a crucial context setting session, speaking about the need for India to become a carbon neutral country ASAP. “In 2020, we’re at a very critical juncture to take action on climate,” she said.

“According to the World Meteorological Organisation, the global mean temperature for the period between January and October 2019 was 1.1°C above pre-industrial levels. The past decade has been the warmest on record. In October, global mean sea levels reached their highest in record keeping and greenhouse emissions in the oceans have been increasing, as has the sea surface temperature and the consequent marine heat waves.”

Zero Se Hero Panel at Youth Ki Awaaz Summit

So, why is the global rising temperature such a huge concern? “According to research, if we cross a 2°C rise in temperature, the world is in trouble – it would lead to extreme climate-related disasters,” said Jayashree.“Countries have pledged certain reductions in carbon emissions, but it’s not in sync with what the Paris Agreement.”

What does net zero carbon emissions mean? To keep temperatures from rising and protecting the world from the worst climate impacts, the most crucial step to be taken is to ensure global greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon emissions not just drop by half,  but need to reach net-zero by mid-century. Net-zero means that not only would we need to stop carbon emissions by reducing our dependency on coal and other fossil fuels, but also by creating carbon sinks through forest restoration and other technologies to remove the existing carbon from the atmosphere.

“This year, 73 countries, led by smaller island countries that haven’t in any way contributed to the historical rise in temperatures, have committed to net zero carbon emissions by 2020,” Jayashree said. “But larger countries, including India, haven’t. We need to figure out how together, 197 countries meet the Paris Agreement goals on emissions to keep the mean temperature rise under 2°C.”

There’s a debate among governments around whether developing countries like India should commit to net-zero emissions at all right now, when they’ve not historically been responsible for rising temperatures. The US, for instance has historically been responsible for the larges emissions and their emissions are on just a marginal decline right now. On the principal of equity, countries are arguing, they should lead the charge towards net zero emissions. “But the US has pulled out of the Paris Agreement,” said Jayashree. “And developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Saudi Arabia, etc. are not taking concrete steps. This means the BASIC nations – India, China, Brazil – have a huge task at hand and must figure out whether to raise their NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions and commit to net zero.”

The Youth Ki Awaaz In Ensuring Countries Act On Their Commitments

The debate might rest on the principle of equity, but the results of accelerated climate related disasters aren’t going to affect developed countries alone. They’re going to affect the future generations across the world. That’s why Ridhima Pandey, a teenage climate activist, banded together with 15 other teenagers from across the world to sue 5 governments over their lack of action in protecting the future generations. 

“Right now, the older generations, government and politicians are not getting the importance of it,” she said. “I want to make them realise the importance of the environment and how it’s going to affect our future.”

How does she plan to take the movement forward? “There are two things we’re doing to protect our rights: strikes and petitions. India is not a small country and is at great risk of the effects of climate change. We’re trying to run awareness programmes in schools to ensure students are aware of their rights and fight for their protection. This will give our government the direction in which they need to act.” 

The Threats To Marginalised Communities And Need For Collective Action To Hold The Govt. Accountable

The future generations are certainly at great risk from the effects of climate change, but even today, marginalised communities are bearing the brunt of extreme climate change.

“The communities in India that are most as risk, have the least say on such issues,” said Tania Devaiah. “For example, fisherfolk on thousands of kilometres of coasts are directly dependent on fish stock in the oceans. Rising sea temperatures are altering the biochemistry of the fish in the oceans, which means they are not able to reproduce any more. This directly impacts how many fish the fisherfolk can catch – threatening their livelihood.”

“Secondly,” Tania said, “Increasing number of extreme weather events are seen in the coasts as well as on the hinterlands – and have a direct impact on the livelihood, health, safety and security of the people there. I’m not even exaggerating when I say thousands living on India’s coasts will be homeless soon – many parts of our coasts will be submerged!”

Drastic action from the government is, according to Tania, a non-negotiable at this juncture. The lives of future generations, and marginalised communities hangs on the balance. Simply increasing renewables isn’t the answer. Even today, the government is sanctioning more coal extraction, more thermal power plants and reducing the monitoring levels for pollution for these thermal power plants,” she said. We have to be the ones to ask our government the tough questions, because until we do that, they’ll take relatively easier methods of dealing with the crisis.” 

On What The Government And Innovators Need To Learn

Asking the tough questions is one aspect of the issue, but there’s also a need to look at how solutions to reduce carbon dependency are being received by the masses.

“The question is, why are we not adopting sustainable practices en masse? Organic food and recyclables – both are very niche concepts,” said Naim Keruwala. “We are a society that thinks a lot about cost and convenience, and we need to focus on these two aspects – through government policies as well as the private sector and entrepreneurs. while innovating.”

Naim Keruwala at the Zero Se Hero Panel at the YKA Summit

When the cost of energy efficient alternatives is higher than the cost of coal reliant products, the initiatives to reduce dependency on fossil fuels will fail, because people wouldn’t be able to afford it, he said. That’s what governments and innovators must understand.

What’s The Role That Businesses And The Private Sector Can Play?

On the one hand, there is the government action. On the other hand, there’s the private sector, which needs to play a huge role in working with the government on reducing emissions. According to Hitesh Kataria, it’s already off to a positive start.

Hitesh Kataria at the Zero Se Hero Panel at the YKA Summit

“There are two narratives being built currently,” he said. “One, that somebody – God, another country or the government – needs to be blamed for the crisis and twi, that the onus is on me – I need to take action to make a difference. Businesses, luckily, have understood this very well. At the end, we need to say ‘what can I do’?”

According to Hitesh, Mahindra is already imbibing the ‘what can I do’ approach. “When we at Mahindra started looking at our numbers, we asked ourselves why we need to spend so much on energy, and can we actually reduce our dependency on coal and look at alternatives like hydro,” he said. “Corporates need to think in this way that ‘If I am investing in energy efficient initiatives, I’m directly contributing to the bottom line. Secondly, to stay ahead of the curve – if there are regulations that are going to be instituted, why not be ready for it with proactive action?”

The Way Forward

It’s not all gloom and doom, though. The challenges to bringing down carbon to net zero are many, but through collective action from all sectors, there’s a high chance India can meet its targets and how! As Tania succinctly put it “As an individual, I will do my bit, but also play a role in holding the government accountable for its commitments, supporting its initiatives and pushing it to take bold, necessary action where its needed.”

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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