This post has been self-published on Youth Ki Awaaz by Himanshu. Just like them, anyone can publish on Youth Ki Awaaz.

Education During COVID-19: Online Education Is Classist, Discriminatory And Impractical

More from Himanshu

This post is a part of YKA’s dedicated coverage of the novel coronavirus outbreak and aims to present factual, reliable information. Read more.

Akash, a student of mass communication IIMC, is getting a reminder to submit his project, failing in which could even fail him in the assessment. He cannot do so as he doesn’t have a laptop and proper Internet available in his village to do the project. Ankita, pursuing her undergraduate in DU, finds a problem in connecting to the live streaming lectures and says that the video buffers after every minute disrupting her to engage. She lives in the Bundelkhand region, one of the least developed areas in India. Similarly, the engineering students are complaining about the lecture as they cannot understand the lectures without practical. These are some very general concerns of students during the lockdown.

In this lockdown, university students are actually under stress for their academic future as the semester exams are on halt. Different news with the possibility and impossibility of the usage of online means for taking the exam are coming in the news. Yet the pivotal question is not only an exam but the feasibility of any online means of institution-based education. Is it possible for India to have online learning given the unequal access to the internet?

This furthers aids us to peep into the current state of internet availability in India.

State Of Internet Availability In India

online education

Western capitalists found post liberalized India as a cheap market of educated labour who could be a viable option for their customer handling and telecommunication. India came under internet connectivity in 1995, whose growth trajectory led the educational institutions to find a way out for Internet-based examination in 2020.

India in 2020 is the largest emerging market of mobile phones, accounting for more than 10% of the global smartphone market. As per the Statista Research Department Report published in March 2020, India has the second-largest internet users in the world, with 560 million, behind only to China.

But only 34% of the total population had access to the Internet in 2017. The figure also carries a vast gender disparity where the ratio of male and female users is approx. 70% and 30%, respectively. An analysis of the rural-urban division of internet usage complexes the internet penetration and shows the disparity. A whopping 66% of the total population lives in rural India. Still, it accounts for just 25.3% internet density compared to the 34% of the urban population having around 98% internet connectivity, as per the report of TRAI.

This internet division gets highly divisive when factors like geographic location, economic scale, age density, caste-based user ratio come into the analysis. Hence, India could be counted as a free country in the digital world carrying some in-depth social, material, economic, gender and geographical exclusion in the process of growth.

Internet Speed And Other Factors

Internet performs based on speed. As per the March 2020 trends of the Speedtest Global Index, India ranks 130 out of 141 nations with a download speed of 10.15 Mbps compared to the global average of 30.47 Mbps. India lags behind other South Asian nations, including Pakistan. The disparity of internet speed exists in rural-urban basis where rural areas still have slow internet availability compared to urban.

The internet shutdown is also an important issue to be looked at as Kashmir, parts in Northeastern states have time to time government implemented internet shutdowns. The most prolonged shutdown of the Internet in Kashmir for 213 days was revoked on March 4, 2020, but with 2G mobile Internet and massive restriction of websites and social media usage, giving almost no freedom of its use.

Digital Learning In Universities During Lockdown

Just after the lockdown was announced, there was a marked growth in online readership. People started to find alternative platforms for reading books, articles, journals. Private schools began taking online classes, and homework was provided on WhatsApp. Similarly, private universities streamed video lectures for their students showing knowledge sharing has no boundary. It is to be known that the UGC regulation Act 2016 allows higher education institutions to provide 20% of the total courses thought online platform SWAYAM. Various public universities, too, like DU, JNU, BHU, etc. approached their faculty for taking online classes to continue teaching during the lockdown.

This decision received a mixed response, and it was lauded as well as criticized. The issue of online examination proposal of end semesters also ran through desks during academic meetings. Universities are finding a way to take the exam through alternate means and evaluate their students. This is still to reach a consensus between authority and students.

Concerns Regarding Online Classes And Examination

A woman holding her phone while working on the laptop.
Image for representation only.

As soon as the online classes and lectures started to take place, various concerns were raised about the online medium. Its feasibility was questioned and its usage was suspected. Many professors and students complained of harassment while conducting online lectures. Right from personal messages to abusive comments to visual nudity, the online platform held female professors hostage to online abuses. One of them said, “While we were taking a video class, the chatbox started being flooded with obscene messages, we could not continue the class afterwards. It was a traumatic experience”.

My personal experience of taking a live steaming YouTube lecture saw a troll attack by different anonymous accounts, which in no time filled the chatbox with numerous anti-Muslim hate messages. This turned all of us cold and even led to an abrupt end of the lecture making it an unpleasant experience.

Zoom app, which was highly promoted during the initial days of lockdown for video conferencing for having the capacity to add around 100 participants, was denounced for the grave privacy concerns. Many developed nations like Singapore has banned the usage of these apps. Another problem that’s being faced by the teachers is the lack of interactive sessions and classroom experience.

Ankit, an assistant professor in Allahabad, shares his experience saying that an online platform somewhere hinders teacher-student interaction. “Because of the digital divide existing between students where some cannot join and use these mediums, we find that it is not justified. I am responsible for reaching out to every student, which isn’t possible by digital means. It can’t be a viable alternative.”

Prof Kamal Nayan teaching Political Science in Dyal Singh College, DU says that “while something is better than nothing in the time of the pandemic, still the worrisome part is it’s not accessible to a group of students. A bunch of students cannot participate, and it is not an alternative for classroom interaction”. He finds the online examination idea absurd and non-feasible.

Why Online Learning And Examination Cannot Be An Option

The problem faced in online teaching is its feasibility. However, there are other concerns also which pose a serious question to the governing authorities of university and commission who are adhering to the online medium for examination and classes.

Firstly, the sudden announcement of pan-India lockdown left people at unrest as many could not reach their homes. Some are stuck midways with no resources and environment that could support the study and interaction. Many of them took shelter with the nearest available relative but have to continue being there in the absence of any transportation. It is not possible to go for any study and examination when one isn’t in a proper place. Anything like this would stress the students.

Secondly, knowing the inequality of the Internet available, various areas are cut short of availing this option. High terrains of states like Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Laddakh still don’t have proper internet connectivity. Many villages, contrary to the government claims, still have scarce or no electricity supply, majorly in Bihar, UP, Chhattisgarh, etc.; think of having Internet to stream high-quality live video lectures when you can’t even charge your phone correctly. The accessibility becomes more problematic with the low speed and highly interrupted internet supply in rural India. Majority of the students in public universities come from a rural background, and in this scenario, the idea of online learning is neglecting their concerns.

Thirdly, owing to the caste-based hierarchical system of Hindu social order, and feudal economic system which led to property accumulation into few hands, a large part of the community particularly belonging to OBC, SC, ST, are highly underprivileged to have and these high-end gadget resources like a good smartphone or laptop which could help them learn and be a part of online teaching this.

Many of them study in public universities due to lesser fewer fees and hence can not compete and own these valuable technical resources. A student in universities like the University of Allahabad, BHU, etc. have an impoverished economic background, and some don’t even have smartphones and laptops. Any move of online examination would be casteist and further classist in its nature, showing urban-centric elite bias and mitigating genuine concerns.

Fourthly, this pandemic has also led to massive emotional unrest. A large number of people are showing signs of depression, insecurity, future dilemma, etc. Students in cities facing higher cases are severely scared too. This severely affects the learning capacity in multiple ways, and hence even with resources available, one could not get the best out of it. The fiscal problem is also on the road with the prolonged lockdown.

Lastly, many courses in academics cannot proceed via online means as they have to complement them with practicals, projects, field works, etc. Courses mainly related to the medical and engineering field have parts of practicals, and hence they cannot do any proper course completion without practicals. Rishabh, a student of MBBS, mentioned that reading PDFs and taking lectures have the least impact without practicals and anatomical studies. We cannot proceed with our course in this way.

The Constitutional Aspect Of Online Learning

There is a constitutional aspect of this decision too, that was also discussed during the lockdown announcement too. Any choice of taking online exams and mandatory classes knowing the division and inequality persistent in society could go on to possibly breach Article 14 of the constitution, which guarantees equality before the law. Any decision of online examination would have a disproportionate impact on the students who, due to any of the reasons mentioned above, can not participate in the online examination and learning and would have to face the discrimination. This argument was put forward by noted legal scholar Gautam Bhatia while discussing the lockdown decision and breach of Article 14 concerning the underprivileged.

The Need For Inclusion And Collective Learning

This time when around half of the world is under partial or complete lockdown, when the most advanced nations have failed in battling the virus at its peak, knowledge is the only way out. A collective, inclusive, anti-hierarchical, non-classist, gender-equal form of knowledge sharing and building which could encapsulate everyone and become a basis for making the last possible person strengthened should be the model we aim for. Online learning and examination can never be a feasible option under the moral guidance of collective and inclusive knowledge sharing that the universities adhere to, owing to its practical problems.

Universities are one of the rare spaces in the world which are supposed to cut down prevalent divisions and inequality and foster the spirit of inclusivity on all basis. Universities should promote the filling of these divisions structured in society rather than taking any biased decisions which would capitalize and strengthen the existing gaps. They should set the trend of standing together, firm, holding hands of each other so that no one could lag in the pursuit of knowledge, exactly the way the world demand togetherness and solidarity in the current crisis of pandemic. The way it is written in the constitution, the guide of our social goals.

You must be to comment.
  1. amish shilpi

    Any method employed for learning under trying circumstances as lockdown now, is a welcome measure.

    While your article, Himanshu tries to create a wedge between opportunity to learn and spending time usefully by pointing out problems and not providing solutions.

    I am an online tutor, more than glad to help the underprivileged to learn and spending time usefully. In such cases I don’t know how you could conclude that the state of Internet in India doesn’t measure up, while most of the population spends more than 8 hours of time on their smart phone?

    This article is driven with full of negativity that I have to strongly protest about half truths you’re citing. Deeply disappointed that such journalism exists that doesn’t take views of online educators into consideration and bark off agenda filled untruths. Good bless!🙏

More from Himanshu

Similar Posts

By PRIA (Participatory Research in Asia) India

By Sohel Ahmed Khan

By Amartya Sarkar

Wondering what to write about?

Here are some topics to get you started

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

Sign up for the Youth Ki Awaaz Prime Ministerial Brief below