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Can Assam Really Afford To Shut Down Its Non-Performing Schools?

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The term Non-Performing Schools lacks a scholarly citation. The origin of the term lies in a Niti Aayog report from August 2017 which recommended the handing over of non-performing or hollowed schools to private players under the Public-Private Partnership mode (PPP).

Representative Image of a Government School in Assam

The term has made a comeback in the news with Assam government’s decision to shut down 17 schools with a zero pass percentage in Class X results, which were announced on June 6. The decision to shut down the schools came along with a timeline of 72 hrs within which the teachers of such schools would be transferred to other schools across the state and students allowed to take admissions in the nearest government school. The clock put on the decision, surpassing the recommendation of the Niti Aayog, affirms the government’s commitment to the decision to shut down said schools.

The phrase ‘non-performing school’, derived from the term ‘non-performing asset’ is a reflection upon the problematic approach of policy-makers towards schools and education. NPAs are essentially commercial loans which can no longer pay interest on the principal. However, a policy approach which views public schools/education from commercial lens is predestined to counterproductive results.

The term implies misplaced emphasis upon the objective of public schools and education to secure a return. Seeking return in terms of monetary profit or a cent percent result may be a complementary by-product, but in no way can it be the primary objective. The primary objective of a government school is making quality education accessible for all, especially the marginalized in the lower socio-economic strata.

For many, beyond a medium for education, schools are also safe spaces. The presence of schools may not completely eradicate the prevalence of child labor, but it definitely erodes it by delaying the entry of children into the workforce. For yet others, schools are safe havens away from alcoholic parents and domestic abuse.

Notably, shutting down of these 17 schools will also negatively impact the already disproportional ratio between private and public schools. As per a report sourced from the Government of Assam Secondary Education, there are a total of 4,345 government schools (inclusive of govt/provincialised Secondary, Higher Secondary and Junior Colleges) as against 11,000 private schools according to All Assam Private Schools Association president Mr Pankaj Das.

In the rush to shut these schools and an absence of reports, there is no account of the due procedures followed and the indexing and alternate use of the resources available with these schools in terms of furniture, electronics, lights, fans, library books, etc. This shutdown is also a total scrapping of schools with functional infrastructure as they face total shutdown instead of undertaking correctional measures.

Gitarthi School, Jorhat. One of the four schools in the district facing shutdown.

In a top-down approach, the government is pulling up Cotton College’s principal and seeking an explanation on its continued diminishing presence in the top 10 list with only four of its students making it to the arts and science streams toppers’ chart as against six last year and 11 in 2010.

Firstly, the results are as reliable a tool to gauge the worth of schools as of the students. Just as there is more to life for a student, there is more than an exam result to a school. Judging a student’s worth based upon his marks is termed as regressive in today’s day and age; it makes one ponder upon what term to employ when a whole school’s worth is judged solely upon marks?

Image Source: Express Illustrations

Further, it also sets off a domino, originating from the Education Minister to the Principal to the teacher until the last domino is knocked down upon the students. It sends the message of ‘marks’ as more important than the learning process to the parents and society at large. It increases the pressure upon students to score, instead of motivating them to learn.

Assam is largely a stranger in regards to mental health. Simultaneously, however, Assam is no stranger to students committing suicide. Not only is the pressure of marks regressive, but in an absence of guidance on how to cope with these pressures, students often take extreme steps to end their lives. According to Assam National Mental Health Survey report (2015-16), suicide rate per 1,00,000 of population for Assam is pegged at 15.90 as compared to 9.52 for India (NCRB).

As per an official, the government’s rationale is that the existence of the colleges and schools which scored a zero pass percentage is meaningless, and teachers there were not at all committed. Thus, the government felt that teachers in these institutions may have taken up the profession by chance and not by choice, and therefore, are not bothered whether the students pass. So, the government has to take initiatives to compel these institutions either to perform or perish.

However, the decision has not taken into consideration all stakeholders. Maybe the decision will in fact be a lesson to non-committal teachers, but it has come at a great expense. Is the punishment of a handful of teachers worth depriving students of a holistic learning experience in schools?

Of the 17 schools to be shut down—five are in Dima Hasao, four in Jorhat, three in Karbi Anglong, two in Cachar, one each in Dhubri, Kamrup (Rural), and Nagaon. Dima Hasao district saw zero pass percentage in 14 schools in 2019 and 6 schools in 2018 as well. According to Dima Hasao Inspector of School Biren Singh Engti, in an interview last year, the schools are suffering due to low appointment of teachers, accruing of the requirement of Teachers Eligibility Test (TET) certificates.

With its annual and biannual floods, Assam is a flood-prone state. As per data furnished to RTI applicant and advocate Irfan Ullah Khandakar by the district project engineer, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Dhubri, 19 schools were washed away in 2012, 64 in 2014, 44 in 2015, 34 in 2016, 33 in 2017, 10 in 2018 and 24 till October 2019. No data was recorded for 2013.

Independence day celebration in a flooded school in Dhubri (Image Source: The Quint)

In a sorry state of affairs, the damaging floods remain grossly under-reported by mainstream media; and in consonance, the impact of Assam floods on education remains largely ignored.

Thus, steering clear of the iron-fisted one-size-fits-all approach, the government should investigate into the affair of these 17 schools with an aim not just to address the shortcomings, but to progressively improve the education system.

The government should put to good use the data, resources and expertise in its possession to conduct required assessments and analysis of these schools along relevant parameters of geography, infrastructure, teacher training and composition of students, among others. Instead of eliminating the schools altogether, the focus should be on addressing the problems and actively reforming the education system suffering from rote learning of irrelevant syllabus and faulty evaluation methods.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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