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The Invisible Tribal Lives of India And Their Experiences With Racism

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All About The Genesis And The Exodus

In the 7th Century, during the Arabic conquest, hundreds of African people migrated to India with the Arabs as slaves. These people belonged to the diverse groups of the Bantu tribe, which originated from the Central and Southern Africa, therefore being known as Zanji (a reference to the Zanzibar Channel in southeastern Africa). As late as the 19th Century, since the origin and twilight of Mughal reign in the subcontinent, the Bantu people were referred to as Habshis, Persian for Abyssinia (ancient Ethiopia).

Ikhlas Khan, the Prime Minister of Bijapur.

These Bantu people were designated as royal slaves. Considering their loyalty and natural strength, they served as royal guards for the Mughal royalties. Some Habshis climbed the ladder of hierarchy and even governed princely states and cities under the Mughal flag.

Consequentially, they earned the title of sahibi (Respect in Arabic) or sayyid (Captain in Arabic). In the present era, the Descendents of the Indo-Bantu tribe are known as the Siddi people, and researchers believe that their tribe’s name is a loose derivation of the aforementioned Arabic titles.

A New Beginning

To escape slavery, the Siddis scattered across the woodlands of the Indian subcontinent, and now they are prevalent in the rural areas of Gujarat, Karnataka, and Hyderabad. Throughout time, the Siddis have inhibited the local Indian languages and culture, while preserving their African heritage through rituals, dances, and the Swahili language. Although they religiously practice indigeneity, the majority of Siddis are Muslims, while some have converted to Hinduism and Catholicism.

Today, the Siddi’s are recognized as the Scheduled Tribes. The Siddis, predominantly, live in secluded villages with very few visiting the urban areas to earn a standard of living. They are an endogamous group; hence, they preserve their ethnicity through cross-cousin marriages.

The highest populace of the Siddi people resides within the Gir forest in Gujarat. The United Nation’s documentary The Siddis: India’s Forgotten Africans, showcases the economic lifestyle of the Siddis in Gujarat. The documentary revolves around Imran, who is a direct descendent of Bantu slaves bought by the Nawab of Junagarh from the Portuguese in the 19th Century.

Today, Imran lives in a village within the Gir Forest and works as a safari tour guide. On the weekends, Imran and his friends perform ethnic African dance in hotels as entertainers. This opportunity provides a platform to spread awareness about their existence and become an additional source of revenue. 

And They Found A Silver Lining

In 1896, the Government of India’s Department of Youth Affairs and Sports initiated the Special Area Games (SAG) Scheme. The Sports Authority of India implemented the scheme with the sole purpose of identifying and training sports persons from tribal, rural, hilly and coastal regions of the country. Since 1900, India had never won an Olympic medal in track and field. Hence, SAG was an excellent avenue to utilize the natural strength and athleticism of the young men and women of the Siddi tribe to achieve glory in the forthcoming Olympic events.

Kamala Babu Siddi

 Kamala Babu Siddi is known as the most prolific athlete produced by the Siddi community. At the age of 15, she was the National Record holder in the junior girl’s pentathlon. She later won one bronze medal in 100m hurdles in 1993 SAF Games, Dhaka, and three gold medals in World Police Fire Games at Melbourne in the same year.

Unfortunately, the SAG was scrapped six years later in 1993 with many criticisms. In 2014, some former athletes and representatives of the Siddi community, like Philip Anthony Siddi, successfully persuaded the Union Government to revive the SAG scheme with a budget allocation of 11.5 crore rupees. Still, despite their attempts, the revival of the scheme has been a failure due to a lack of facilities because of the inefficient allocation of resources.

The Marginal Difference

Since pre-independence India, as the subcontinent was urbanizing under the British rule, millions migrated from the rural areas to urban areas, giving up their land, and became part of the labour force. The tribal communities who stayed with their land were looked upon as wild, barbaric, and unruly (Aier, 2013).

Post-independence, the tribal communities (recognized as Scheduled Tribes) are classified in the lowest strata of social hierarchy. Asha Stuart’s award-winning short film The Lost Tribe of Africa highlights the life of a Siddi man in Karnataka narrated by Ramnath Siddi, a social activist.

Ramnath Siddi unveils that Siddi’s are marginalized as untouchables by the upper class like any other ST communities. Ramnath Siddi and his fellow Siddi were born in India. They legally hold Indian citizenship and speak the local languages fluently, but they are alienated by fellow Indians because of their African lineage. People call their skin dirty and their physiognomy ugly. Despite legally owning their land, the Siddi’s face the challenge of being illegally forced out of villages they live in by local communities.

The tribal communities are the foundation of the Indian race, but they are stereotyped as wild, uncivilized, primitive beings who live in trees, wear leaves and hunt their food. People of tribal communities who live in urban areas are victims of such stereotypes and face racial slurs in the form of monkey chants and hateful questions. The caste system is not the only source of discrimination; the quota reservation for ST, SC, and OBC in universities and jobs fuels such hate.

The Ancestral Curse 

I belong to the Oraon tribe of Jharkhand through my father’s lineage. I have been brought up as a secular person, and I have never used a quota to avail of a seat in any university or company. I was born in a city, I live an urban lifestyle, and I have been educated in the top schools and colleges in the country. But I have experienced racism in big cities of Bangalore and Pune, as well as in my hometown, Jamshedpur.

The moment people figure out my ancestry, they have questions like- “Do you live in proper houses or trees?” “Do you dance like monkeys around a campfire?” All of these have come from well-educated, privileged people. Such ill-treatment makes me question myself- “Am I cursed to bear my father’s title?”

Ignorance Is Not Bliss 

The problem with the case of racism in India is that we have normalized it. Words like Kallu, Chinki, and Adivasi are so casually used as an insult that neither the user nor the victim understands the degree of felony. The entertainment industry is a major culprit of normalizing racism in India.

The ridicule of characters with black skin, aspects of tribal origin, fat people, and above all, women, for a comedic purpose, has concealed the evil of racism. Racism in India is different from racism abroad, and it is difficult to eradicate because we the people of India don’t want to accept that we are racist, especially towards our tribal people.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

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A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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