This post has been self-published on Youth Ki Awaaz by Manaswini Panigrahi. Just like them, anyone can publish on Youth Ki Awaaz.

Is There A Link Between Menstruation And Gender-Based Violence?

More from Manaswini Panigrahi

This post is a part of Periodपाठ, a campaign by Youth Ki Awaaz in collaboration with WSSCC to highlight the need for better menstrual hygiene management in India. Click here to find out more.

Gender-based violence (GBV) is an untold story and unrevealed experience for a considerable percentage of women in India and the world. NFHS-IV data shows that 30% of women in India in the age group of 15-49 have experienced physical violence, and 6% in the same age group have faced sexual violence. About 31% of married women have experienced physical, sexual and emotional violence by their spouses.

This shows how violence against women has been ingrained and increasing day by day. This also applies to issues related to menstrual hygiene management. GBV has many dimensions which include physical, sexual, psychological and social aspects. Depriving an individual (mostly women) of their basic needs, identity, and fundamental rights are some more dimensions.

Menstruation is a natural process occurring in this group once every month for 3-5 days. But, it’s associated stigma negatively influences the lives of women and girls. It reinforces gender inequalities and exclusion. The natural bodily process has been converted and restructured by society in an elaborate manner.

This easily helps those who usually wish to exercise their power over women. To consider women as a vulnerable and weaker gender is a traditional thought based on gender discrimination. And menstruation has always been used as a tool to exploit women.

From times immemorial, some customs and traditions have been built to express their control and supremacy over women. And gradually, more notions have been added which have made the simple natural process of menstruation so complex.

In a few communities, the first onset of menarche is celebrated grandly. Sometimes this makes the girl an easy prey for early marriage, sexual violence, teenage pregnancy, school dropout and trafficking like issues. On the other hand, the weak economic condition of the family is so that they can’t even offer sanitary pads. There is an existing myth that menstruation is a dirty process. So why to waste money instead of reusing the leftover old cloth.

Lack of toilet or running water in homes also makes them go outside to ponds or rivers for bathing, cleaning or any other routine chores. And there are a great chance and evidence of violated privacy and sexual abuse. During my interaction with communities, I found that at home, some women are forced into sexual relations during menstruation against their wishes. Not only does it make them prone to reproductive tract infections, but it’s also non-consensual and a gross violation on their bodies.

Zomato's Period Leave is a welcome decision.

Sometimes conflict also arises between family members regarding the girl’s attitude towards the myth. Conflict over spending on sanitary pads and other menstrual products is also commonly seen.

Occasionally girls opt for transactional sex to purchase their sanitary pads to keep attending school. Many times they are compelled to eat hormone pills to postpone their periods to perform family rituals or functions. Regular consumption of emergency pills, hormone pills breaks their regular cycle and has many side effects on their physical and mental health.

After a few years of menarche, girls are often forced into child marriage because there is a myth in some communities that her reproductive capacity gradually decreases with the increase in age. Her freedom of movement and participation in different function and co-curricular activities is restricted.

She also faces embarrassing situations at public places like in school, office, hospital and bus stop. This is due to the lack of availability of proper WASH or MHM facility in those areas or not in a working condition. There is also a chance of bullying or harassment by their male counterparts. All this makes her reluctant to go outside to avoid unsafe situations for 3-4 day every month.

From all the above, it is evident that menstruation is being used as a tool for GBV. If we want to create a world of gender equality & equity, we have to make an integrated effort at all levels. The basic facilities like a toilet with running water, the supply of sanitary pad, hand washing, dustbin and pad disposing system, should be made available at every place.

It will help menstruators manage their cycle without any fear and shame efficiently. This will not only help them to stay safe and healthy but also can enhance their self-esteem. And they can play their part effectively in nation-building progress.

You must be to comment.

More from Manaswini Panigrahi

Similar Posts

By Mumtaz Rehman

By Syama Sasidharan

By Melanie Dhar

Wondering what to write about?

Here are some topics to get you started

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

Sign up for the Youth Ki Awaaz Prime Ministerial Brief below