This post has been self-published on Youth Ki Awaaz by Dalit Camera. Just like them, anyone can publish on Youth Ki Awaaz.

This Professor’s Experience Clearly Proves How Casteist Our Academic Institutions Are

More from Dalit Camera

This post is a part of JaatiNahiAdhikaar, a campaign by Youth Ki Awaaz with National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights & Safai Karamchari Andolan, to demand implementation of scholarships in higher education for SC/ST students, and to end the practice of manual scavenging. Click here to find out more.

Written by Ekabali Ghosh for Dalit Camera

In 2012, Maroona Murmu received her doctorate from the prestigious Centre for Historical Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University. Dr Murmu’s road to the PhD degree was not easy. A trained classical musician, Maroona had decided to work on the history of the Bishnupur school of classical music in the second half of the 18th century. The Chairperson of her centre had responded with, “being a tribal you want to work on high culture? You are not even an insider.” The taunt made her rethink her decision and finally, she completed her thesis on the marginalized Other in the Bengal Renaissance: the genteel women.

Professor Dr Maroona Murmu. Photo: Facebook File

Born to a Hindu caste mother and an Adivasi father, Maroona’s childhood was by her own admission filled with loneliness. Neither the caste bhadroloks of her mother’s family nor the Adivasis would accept this inter-community marriage. She recounts the hullabaloo she saw among her parents when she was in the eighth standard over whether she should possess an ST certificate. Her Adivasi father, Gurucharan Murmu, a first-generation school-goer and the first Santal IPS officer in India insisted that this was an essential step towards affirmative action.

Since then, Dr Murmu has come a long way. She is an Associate Professor of History in the prestigious Jadavpur University in West Bengal, the only Adivasi professor in a social science discipline at that level of seniority in the state. She was selected to teach in Burdwan University in an unreserved post, following which there was an ecosystem of disapproval by savarna academics. Of course, these academics would never openly say something so blatantly casteist, rather they would limit their anguish to their dinner table conversations.

Following Dr Murmu’s own claim, we can argue that the violence inflicted on Adivasis and Dalits in educational institutions in West Bengal is symbolic.

The backlash against these caste and indigenous groups have nothing to do with traditional ritualistic religious bigotry and everything to do with blocking access to traditionally casteist spaces like academic institutions. As savarna hegemony is threatened, savarna academics, students and researchers find it imperative to symbolically remind Adivasis and Dalits from time to time that they are after all, inferior. This symbolic violence is inflicted to remind them of their “proper place”. The extension of casteist practices from traditional Hindu ritual and casteism’s ability to perpetuate itself in the field of social capital is also why we find so many casteists among atheists.

For Dr Murmu, the problem is three-tiered. Not only is she an Adivasi, but also a woman – an Adivasi woman who is unapologetic about her identity and does not mince her words in her criticism of the bhadroloks. For this, she has been subjected to condescending comments, defensiveness due to usual savarna fragility, questions about her “merit” etc. More recently, this has escalated into blatant derogatory remarks about her identity and name-calling.

On September 3, 2020, Dr Murmu posted that examinations during the pandemic are a bad idea. She claimed that the loss of one year is nothing compared to the loss of life. To this post, a woman called Paromita Ghosh, a student of the Department of Bengali, Bethune College, Kolkata objected saying that those who accessed reservations were “meritless idiots” (“jogyotaheen opodartho”) who only came forward due to their caste.

Since Dr Murmu too is an ST individual, she and all others who access SC, ST and OBC reservations were insulted through the student’s comments. The comment also calls into question her credibility as an academic. Further, the student accused Dr Murmu of only centering her thinking around quotas. She also accused Dr Murmu of not providing hard labour. The implication is that what would an ST teacher know about hard work?

An Adivasi academic who carries within herself a history of centuries of hard exploitative labour, including the labour of Adivasi women, the heritage of which has been passed down through mothers and grandmothers (or through the father in her case), what would SHE know of hard work?

Think for once, the labour put in by generations of Adivasis to educate one family member in the western school system. And now imagine the audacity of the savarna woman who dares to school an Adivasi woman on the value of hard labour.

But the student did not stop there. In another Facebook post, she reminded Dr Murmu that she was after all a “Murmu”, a Santhal. She and others like her, who had condemned Ms Ghosh’s behaviour were simply drawing paychecks and getting fat from them. This is as Dr Murmu has herself pointed out, symbolic violence in order to keep her in her “proper place”. The presence of an Adivasi woman in a hallowed hall of academic learning threatens students like her.

Those familiar with the academic system in West Bengal would know how hierarchized it is. Students barely ever speak up against teachers even when there are legitimate grounds to do so (inappropriate conduct, sexual harassment etc.). In a system that is this hierarchized, we are forced to ask the question, why go after Dr Murmu?

A similar insult would never be thrown at a savarna academic. Some politically conscious academics condemned this student’s statement. As soon as outrage started growing, the student started defending her statement. How could she be a casteist? After all, she has respect for this other minority professor teaching in the same university. Such logic assumes that minority academics are replaceable.

Respect for one minority person does not automatically translate into dignity for all marginalized minorities. Moreover, such statements create a binary of who can and cannot be respected. And the angry Adivasi cannot be respected.

This ridiculous defence was served with dollops of victim-blaming. If Dr Murmu did not want to be insulted, she should drop her surname and the “benefits” she gets from her ST certificate, just by waving her surname everywhere.

Does the student know that there is a proud tradition in Dalit activism of dropping surnames and accessing SC reservations as one’s right, and not as alms from the savarnas? I do not think we can find out but since our school syllabi do not teach us a word about the illustrious politics of Dr Ambedkar beyond heading the Constituent Assembly, I am inclined to think she does not.

Add to that caste pride, an ecosystem of self-righteousness and self-pity and you will be served with cases like Dr Murmu’s where casteist students insult DBA academics with impunity.

The Head of the Department of Bengali, Bethune College published a post on Facebook condemning the student’s behaviour. Due to vitriolic attacks, she too had to remove her post. And yet the utterance of casteist nonsense will still be defended by uncritically citing the freedom of speech. Despite the vitriolic attacks, Dr Murmu insistently places her hope in intersectional politics. She responded to us, “Unless one understands the intersectionality of class, caste, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, ability, language, location to understand deprivation and marginalisation, and acknowledges privilege and entitlement that accidental birth endows a person with, the society and polity would never move towards equity and equality.”

This is exactly the kind of politics that Dr Murmu has been attacked over before – the need to see oppression as not just a function of class but all other power structures.

When she wrote the post-editorial for Ananda Bazar Patrika, various ‘Bruncles’ (Brahmanical uncles) from the old left attacked her over her unflattering evaluation of the CPI(M) led leftist regime with respect to caste discrimination. At that point, she was accused of selling out to the liberal media house, Ananda Bazar Patrika.

One Brahmanical critic claimed that this was not her opinion but something ABP had manipulated her into writing. The need of the hour was the largest unity of the oppressed and not identity-based attacks on the left, effectively pitting caste and class politics and projecting himself as the sole legitimate commentator on class. According to the same critic, real Adivasi emancipation would only arrive when Murmu women would be married to Brahmin men and carry Brahmin children.

The assumption of Brahmin male entitlement over the bodies of Adivasi women is staggering.

Ambedkar Students Association released a statement of solidarity with Dr Maroona Muru. Photo: Twitter.

These half-read attacks on identity politics are nothing new in the old left. The new left too suffers from it as evidenced by the experience of many Dalits, Adivasis and Dalit feminists in the student-led left. Through her own work, Dr Murmu has advocated against the myth that caste does not exist in West Bengal. It does. And the attacks on Dr Murmu only prove her correct.

About the author: Ekabali Ghosh is a queer research student and JRF scholar in the Department of English, Jadavpur University. She is a feminist activist with about four years experience of organizing survivors of sexual violence and queer individuals. She is the founder of Women Against Sexual Harassment, a platform that supports survivors of sexual violence and Queer Studies Research Cluster, an interdisciplinary nationwide network of researchers in the field of queer studies. Her alter ego eats cheese and pasta.

The piece was first published here on Dalit Camera.

You must be to comment.

More from Dalit Camera

Similar Posts

By Mitesh Solanki

By Namrata Pal

By Snayini Das

Wondering what to write about?

Here are some topics to get you started

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

Share your details to download the report.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

Sign up for the Youth Ki Awaaz Prime Ministerial Brief below