The Paris climate conference, generally known as the Paris agreement is the first global deal signed and adopted by a total of 195 countries. The agreement conducted by the United Nations Conference on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 12 December 2015 is considered as a historic turning point in international negotiations on the environment. The objective of the convention is to combat severe climate change by increasing the efforts from national governments, IGOs, industries, and individuals.
The convention intends to curtail the level of temperature to 2°Celsius and try to reduce the temperature further to the pre-industrial level of 1.5°Celsius by 2050. The burning of fossil fuels is the core issue that creates pollution and an upswing in greenhouse gas emissions which in turn directly results in increased temperature, energy depletion, rising sea levels, and catastrophic disasters.
Recognizing this battle against climate change as unavoidable all the signatories are demanded to take up the responsibility to stop industries, companies, and governments from exploiting resources without giving thoughts for tomorrow.
The bill aims to create a new environmental consciousness in people and urge the authorities to reverse the intense climate change. Every country has a given target period of either 2025 or 2030. Also, the targets should be reviewed and renewed every five years considering the changing climate situations. In other words, ambitious changes should be included in the agreement by each country, keeping up the initiative active and well ahead.
The signatories are to consider the nature and magnitude of the crisis and hold the freedom to set a target on its own known as the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. Based on these natural targets, the European Union has set a voluntary standard of 40% of the carbon emissions to be cut short by the year 2030.
The developed countries are asked to aid developing countries with finance and technology to help them become sustainable. The direct result of the agreement, if properly practiced, is that it brings a reduction in temperature level, to provide fresh air and water and a sustainable energy transition.
Another decision of the agreement is to implement the usage of modern-day science and technological advancement in the line of environmental guidelines, for instance, by decarbonization of transportation and by adapting to climate changes and ensuring more accountable and advanced disaster management.
The Paris agreement has witnessed a new era of partnership for the environment by national and international organizations, industries, developed and developing nations. Even though the convention and its decisions are not free from criticisms mainly because of its non-enforcement characteristics. The UNFCCC has stated that the agreement is “not enforcement but encouragement”.
In addition to this, the criteria for reducing the temperature and energy transition are considered ambiguous by many scholars. The bill is regarded by some critics as ineffective when compared to the goal of developing countries on economic growth. However, the Paris Convention had brought unity amongst the nations than ever before, to deter climate change and solve the global problem of the generation.
About the Author: Nivya Jain is a passionate writer and graduate in Economics. A reader for life, interested in politics and diplomacy.