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Can Deteriorating Environmental Conditions Cause Cognitive Disability?

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Environmental conditions causing mental or cognitive disability was a relatively obscure subject till the recent past. However, of late, researchers are delving deep into environmental factors like air and soil pollution that often lead to neurodegenerative ailments like Dementia and Alzheimer’s.

Scientists have claimed that cognitive disability arises from a combination of genes and environmental factors. “Indeed”, E. Fuller Torrey, president of the Treatment Advocacy Center, a nonprofit organization that promotes treatment advances in psychiatry, suggests that “mental illnesses increasingly fall into the realm of environmental health”.

Neuroinflammation, which might lead to cognitive and intellectual disability, occurs as a result of environmental hazards. As a consequence of the rapidly enhancing amalgamation of epidemiology and molecular biology, the role of the environment in the arena of mental illness has acquired a significant position.

In an attempt to investigate the connection between environmentalism and cognition, mental health experts have examined the influence of toxic chemical exposures on cognitive diseases and have opined about its detrimental effects on patients suffering from any kind of intellectual anomaly.

Psycho-Social Studies have pointed out the ill effects of the presence of air and soil pollution on those suffering from cognitive and mental disorders-

It has been recorded that a history of toxic exposure significantly lowered the age of the onset of cognitive decline and intellectual disability.

The presence of heavy metals like mercury in both its organic and inorganic form has been found to cause encephalopathy (declining ability of the brain). In humans, one of the likely sources of organic mercury such as methylmercury is the consumption of contaminated fish. Inhalation of mercury vapor by those working in the felt hat industry is also a matter of concern regarding those who suffer from this occupational hazard.

Groundwater contamination with arsenic is a menace that plagues most parts of West Bengal. It is a major problem and a matter of concern as the presence of Arsenic in water has an ill effect on oxidative metabolism in neurons which in turn has an adverse effect on cognitive ability and personality. The cognitive decline also occurs as a result of chronic exposure to heavy metals like lead.

Problems due to metals like lead may occur long after the duration of the exposure to it. People who have been exposed to lead earlier exhibit a longitudinal decline in cognitive function and are detected with lower brain volumes. Chronic exposure to toluene can also lead to cognitive and behavioral problems by causing neuronal cell death.

Genetic factors, coupled with environmental factors, form the psycho-social reasons that lead to the rapid degeneration of the brain cells which in turn lead to brain dysfunctional diseases like Dementia and Alzheimer’s. Apart from the above-discussed avenue, this paper will also focus its attention on a new perspective which is a significant aspect of the environment and gene dichotomy in matters of cognitive disability.

Eco-anxiety is a phenomenon which is characterized by a severe and a nagging worry regarding changing and uncertain natural environment.

Apart from toxic exposures to the above-mentioned metals, cognitive disability is also caused due to climate change. The American Psychological Association has published a report which has codified how mental health and climate change are related to each other. Several psychologists have warned people citing the ill effects of global environmental threats and the resultant paranoia which is termed as ‘eco-anxiety’.

Eco-anxiety is a phenomenon which is characterized by a severe and a nagging worry regarding changing and uncertain natural environment.

Climate change is observed to have a large scale psychological impact. Not only does extreme weather conditions lead to natural disasters but it also has an impact on mental wellness. Researchers have found out that eco-anxiety may create emotional distress and anxiety about the future, leaving many individuals feeling scared, sad, depressed, numb, helpless and hopeless, frustrated, or angry. We emotionally disassociate from the suffering we inflict on the environment, meaning we separate the psychic cluster of feelings related to global warming and create an amnesia barrier to alleviate mental distress. To disassociate is to split consciousness.

Value-Belief-Norm theory and social-cognitive theory which comprises an egoistic value, social-altruistic value and biospheric value primarily explain why an individual is scared about an environmental issue and what forms the basis of his paranoia. For example, concerns about air pollution could be generated and enhanced by the fact that it could damage one’s lungs (egoistic), is unhealthy for children and the elderly (social-altruistic), or is detrimental to forests (biospheric). These feelings can be summed up as environmental stress and can lead to depression which enhances the onset of Dementia.

One such case of depression resulting in Dementia has been found out in the Asansol region of West Bengal where an elderly patient named Mr Debasis Sen (62 years old) has been detected with Dementia after a prolonged history of Chronic depression for three years consequent to his retirement and his wife’s death.

This phenomenon primarily sums up the major argument of my paper that how genetic factors coupled with environmental factors form the psycho-social reasons that lead to the rapid degeneration of the brain cells, which, in turn, lead to brain dysfunctional diseases like Dementia and Alzheimer’s.

Whether it is eco-anxiety that leads to depression, or exposure to toxic chemicals and other environmental hazards like air and soil pollution that leads to neurodegenerative ailments, the solution is ensuring sustainable development. The process of sustainable development will curb the menace of environmental hazards and will not only control but also reduce the detrimental effects of environmental pollution and nature abuse on patients suffering from any kind of intellectual anomaly.

Mental health has been included in the list of Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 before which this genre had a bleak perspective in the tabloid of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Consequently, people with cognitive disorders felt excluded from significant developmental programs and initiatives across the world. This step has been recognized as a milestone in the genre of an all-inclusive society which does not discriminate between the abled and the specially-abled.

Many disabled members of our society have expressed their appreciation for this step and have opined that this step has ensured their participation and identification as active members of society who do not have to face the wrath of a judgmental mass. Amidst the 169 targets across the 17 Goals, seven targets have a vivid reference to persons with disabilities. But, how does sustainable development ensure a better life for the mentally impoverished?

First of all, persons with disabilities strongly adhere to the faith that only by utilizing the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) as a guiding framework in implementing the SDGs, will it be ensured that exclusion and inequality are not perpetuated to them. Thus, it can be rightfully said that including mental health as a priority in the SDGs is the first major step towards creating an inclusive society which does not discriminate against anyone based on their mental health.

Secondly, as Dr Sukanchan Palit has opined in one of his scholarly articles on Environment and Energy Sustainability that “Environmental degradation is at its vicious helm” and only environmental sustainability can save the world from an impending catastrophe because environmental sustainability alone can salvage the living conditions of the mentally insolvent to a great extent.

Environmental engineering and water technology need to reduce the ill effects of such a hazard. Provision for clean drinking water in industrial areas of West Bengal, such as Asansol and Durgapur needs to be taken up as a matter of serious concern. The process of Bioremediation is an integral force of sustainable development goals that have emerged as a plausible solution to the groundwater contamination bane. The Millenium Development goals aim to endeavor in making such industrial cities free from the curse of groundwater contamination which acts as a catalyst to mentally degenerative ailments like Dementia.

A case study carried out in the Benachity area of Durgapur has shown the detrimental effect of arsenic groundwater contamination on an eleven-year-old boy named Sushil Sarkar. Dr Suchismita Neogi, the Sarkars’ family doctor has said that Sushil suffers from learning difficulty owing to arsenic exposure and resultant epigenetic processes and gene-environment interplay.

Most residents of Asansol, Ranigunj, Chittaranjan, and Durgapur are prey to this peril as these are industrial belts that constantly encounter the nuisance of water pollution. The Sustainable Development goals have identified water pollution as an impending doom to human life which needs to be treated and curbed by methods like solid waste management.

Sustainable Development can ensure ecological stability which can reduce climate change and hence treat the problems associated with eco-anxiety. Fundamental human needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food, and shelter are the ecological foundations of sustainable development. Sustainable Development can act as a major step in curbing or controlling cognitive disability as it can check the environmental factors that aggravate the conditions leading to intellectual disability.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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