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COVID-19, Unresolved Grief, And The Workplace

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This post is a part of YKA’s dedicated coverage of the novel coronavirus outbreak and aims to present factual, reliable information. Read more.

By Kuber Bathla:

The COVID-19 crisis has triggered mental health crises all over the globe and has forced people to confront losses of the past, at a time when the future is uncertain. A sense of grief has been pervasive and has even seeped into workplaces. 

For people working in the social sector, stress and trauma are often an inherent part of work. As Rohit Kumar of Apni Shala Foundation writes, “People working in social impact have had to deal with COVID-19 and its varying impacts at two levels—on one hand, they have to manage themselves and their own lives in this pandemic, and on the other, they are daily witnesses to how structural negligence, violence, and poorly-designed policies affect the lives of the communities they work with.”

Working remotely also means that most people are unable to notice signs of grief among their co-workers.

From leaders to frontline workers, these professionals often work in spaces that expose them to high levels of trauma, stress, violence, and abuse—increasing the risk of burnout or emotional exhaustion. A UK-based survey of social workers revealed that more than 75% of respondents were concerned about burnout, something that is even more common when people work remotely. Working remotely also means that most people are unable to notice signs of grief among their co-workers, creating an unhealthy information asymmetry.

To get a clearer insight into the impact of unresolved grief on organisations, McKinsey & Company published a report: The hidden perils of unresolved grief. Defining grief as a feeling of loss of deep-seated human needs such as identity, purpose, attachment, and control, the report examines the impact that grief can have among employees when it remains unresolved for a prolonged period.

Representational image,

Understanding Grief In The Workplace

Grief is characterised by a feeling of loss and can arise due to both positive and negative events. While negative circumstances such as the loss of a friend or family member may seem like obvious sources of grief, positive events such as starting a new job or moving to a new city can also trigger this feeling.

And while personal losses occupy a large share of our lives, professional losses can also cause grief. During the pandemic, this has been exacerbated due to prolonged levels of uncertainty. Every day brings with it new changes.

All change is loss, and loss must be mourned.

Harry Levinson, a psychologist from the 1950s who studied the management of organisations, remarked, “All change is loss, and loss must be mourned.” Due to inadequate research, relatively little is known about the relationship between grief and the workplace, although the two definitely influence each other. More attention to this correlation is important.

What Do The Numbers Say?

George Kohlrieser, one of the authors of the McKinsey report, claims to have seen first-hand how the harmful impact of unresolved grief affected “nearly a third of the 7,000-plus executives” he had worked with. The damage, Kohlriesser says, transcended both physical and mental boundaries, resulting in poor management of the organisation, along with other consequences on employees’ personal lives.

In 2003, James and Friedman estimated the financial cost of unresolved grief using the Grief Index, pegging the figure at USD 75 billion a year for companies in the United States. The index accounted for dips in performance and productivity owing to personal as well as professional losses incurred by the workers.

sharing the burden graphic -sormission.org
Leaders must begin to open themselves up to their colleagues, so as to create an air of assurance and camaraderie. | Picture courtesy: SOR Mission

What About The Other Costs?

The McKinsey report uses real-life examples of employees who have gone through stages of grief in order to illustrate its impact. Understandably, some found it difficult to have a positive outlook while grieving, and being fixated on negativity and failure affected their work.

Unresolved grief can weaken leaders’ relationships at work.

Using the example of an executive in his forties, the report explores how unresolved grief can weaken leaders’ relationships at work. The report also comments on a lack of respect exhibited by leaders who might be experiencing grief, saying that, “The unhappiness and lack of self-respect a grieving leader feels can lead to a lack of respect for others”. It can also lead to displays of anger, which have an obvious negative effect in the workplace.

Resolving Unresolved Grief

In a way, the process of grieving is necessary for people to recognise and accept their emotions. George Bonanno, the author of The Other Side of Sadness: What the New Science of Bereavement Tells Us About Life After Loss, views grief as something natural and necessary to ensure that we get enough space to accommodate the absence of something.

Another report from McKinsey & Company describes routes that organisations can take in order to avoid grief from settling with their employees. While resolving grief at an individual level requires a response that begins with becoming aware of one’s grief, organisations need to take steps to ‘set the right tone’ first, in order to make people feel comfortable talking about the issues they may be facing.

Here’s what the research suggests:

1. Build the right environment

For people to be able to break the silence around mental health or grief, and discuss their issues openly, organisations must build an environment of compassion and empathy. Apart from providing opportunities to recognise grief and understand the process of resolving it, leaders must begin to open themselves up to their colleagues, so as to create an air of assurance and camaraderie. Unresolved grief is usually a result of reluctance to talk about the same, and therefore, it is imperative to have an open, non-judgemental outlook when people are grieving.

2. Make efforts to recognise grief

Denial of grief is common, being a “primal source of psychological comfort, protecting people from painful emotions.” It is, however, inadvisable to keep denying certain issues, even if they are difficult to discuss. After a point, it is important to acknowledge losses and recognise the problems that people are facing—in the moment or in the past.

People in leadership roles should be able to initiate conversations about grief at different points of time, so as to understand its sources better and be prepared for it in the future. This can be particularly tough, but it is a process that organisations should go through to empower employees to overcome barriers that keep them from reflecting on their experiences.

3. Go easy on people

Adequate time and space to reflect on experiences is important. Employees, especially ones who are going through the process of grief, must be given adequate time for bereavement in the form of leaves. Leaders should not assume how their employees and their families are doing, and need to consider that they may need to look beyond the surface to understand their employees’ needs.

4. Build rituals in your organisation

To reflect on their experiences and come to terms with change, organisations can build out unique rituals. The McKinsey report commends Japanese companies for having rituals that enable their employees to deal with senior leadership transitions. In certain Japanese companies, workers are given adequate time to think about their past and their role at the workplace before transitioning into the future. These rituals can take the form of events and celebrations, or even just leaves and breaks, that allow employees to better deal with organisational changes.

There Are No Silver Bullets

At the end of the day, grief is a human emotion. One cannot expect it to be eliminated using techniques found in a handbook. Therefore, while the steps mentioned above might not work for everyone, it is important to try out methods that may work for your organisation or consult someone who might be able to help.

The onus is also on organisations to recognise how the pandemic is fuelling grief and loss. The report puts it succinctly, “Grief is inevitable. Unresolved grief doesn’t have to be.” Leaders need to think about a simple question to start with: Are we doing enough to recognise unresolved grief?

This article was originally published on India Development Review.

About the author:
Kuber Bathla was an intern at India Development Review. He is currently enrolled in an undergraduate programme in political science and economics at St Stephen’s College, Delhi. He has previously written for platforms such as LiveWire and The Citizen.
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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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Find out more about the campaign here.

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As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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