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In 2020, Why Does Everything Offend The Supreme Court, Even Stick Figures?

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Understanding Contempt of Court in India, the case against ‘Sanitary Panels’, and some questions that we must ask ourselves and each other about the functioning of the Supreme Court.

When I was younger, the phrase ‘contempt of court’ would elicit memories of a loud, confident lawyer in an American drama disregarding the rules of the court to drive their point home. A screaming elderly judge telling them that they will be held in contempt of court. However, In India and my adulthood, the reality of the term is very different and is used against stand-up comedians, lawyers, and even cartoonists who criticize the Supreme Court on Twitter.

The Legal Aspect

Before we get into what happened a few days around cartoonist Rachita Taneja, it’s important to understand what contempt of court is from a legal standpoint. It is a constitutional power given to the Supreme Court Of India. Article 29 of the Constitution of India states that The Supreme Court of India shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself ”. This constitutional right however mostly relates to contempt within the courtroom directed towards the judges or the proceedings itself.

The contempt of court which has been used against people’s tweets and opinions comes from The Contempt of Court Act, 1971, which divides contempt into 2 parts, civil and criminal contempt. According to the act, civil contempt is “willful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to a court”.

Criminal Contempt which has been used none too sparingly refers to:

the publication (whether by words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise) of any matter or the doing of any other act whatsoever which 

(i) scandalises(sic) or tends to scandalise, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of, any court; or 

(ii) prejudices, or interferes or tends to interfere with, the due course of any judicial proceeding; or

(iii) interferes or tends to interfere with, or obstructs or tends to obstruct, the administration of justice in any other manner;” 

While the legal aspects may be a bit tedious to go through, it’s important to go through it to understand and form an opinion around what the Supreme Court is doing. An important case judgment to look at is the case of ‘PN Duda vs Shiv Shankar and Others(1988)’ where the Supreme Court itself ruled that mere criticism of the court does not amount to contempt.

The Curious Case Of The ‘Contemptuous’ Cartoonist (And Other Mysteries)

A law student requested for contempt proceedings to be initiated against Taneja for two of her cartoons criticizing the Supreme Court’s decision to grant bail to Arnab Goswami. Representational image

Now that the legal jargon is out of the way, it’s time to concentrate on what happened. Rachita Taneja is a digital organizer who works in the fields of environment, human rights, and net-neutrality and the founder of ‘Sanitary Panels’, a social media page where she draws cartoons often critical of the government.

A law student requested for contempt proceedings to be initiated against Taneja for two of her cartoons criticizing the Supreme Court’s decision to grant bail to Arnab Goswami, a spokesperson at Republic TV. On Tuesday, Attorney-General KK Venugopal gave his consent to initiate contempt proceedings against her.

This move brought more criticism against the Supreme Court of India, with people perplexed at the idea of prosecuting a cartoonist for her tweets. While there are cases from the Delhi Pogrom, against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), and the removal of Article 370 in Kashmir still waiting to be heard in the Supreme Court, it is understandable why people are confused about why this is a priority.

Questions To Ponder

Similar cases of contempt were lodged against Prashant Bhushan, an advocate, and Kunal Kamra, a stand-up comedian for tweets which insinuated that the apex court in India was partial towards the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) and their followers. Whether this is true or not is a topic that is up for debate, but the question still remains – does criticising this in a tweet amount to The Court being scandalized or unable to perform due administration of justice?

If one argues that it does scandalize the court and affect the dignity of the judiciary, surely the dignity of the Supreme Court in India should be on surer foundations wherein 0-280 characters do not faze it. If that is indeed the case, perhaps questions need to be raised on why the dignity of the court is so weak?

In 1988, Justice Sabyasachi Mukherjee spoke for the Supreme Court stating that statements of criticism did not hamper the administration of justice. He went on to say “If antisocial elements and criminals have benefited by decisions of the Supreme Court, the fault rests with the laws and the loopholes in the legislation. The Courts are not deterred by such criticisms.” In 2020, these criticisms are still valid so why is the Supreme Court finding it hard to administer justice due to criticism?

Rachita Taneja has received lots of love,  support, and solidarity from people all over the country after proceedings were initiated against her, with many echoing her sentiments, and also surprised at the nature of the Court’s reaction.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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