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The ‘Gig Economy’: Does It Promise A Fair Future Of Work For Women?

India has one of the lowest Female Labour Force Participation (FLFP) among developing countries. As per estimates for 2018-19,  it stood at 24.5% for women aged 15 years and above – a sharp decline from 31.2% in 2011-12 – and is well below the global average of 45%.

The Romanticisation Of The ‘I Do It All’ Image Of A Woman Is Problematic

Though FLFP has remained historically low in India, the latest trends confirm that women have been continuously dropping out of the labour force and increasingly attending domestic duties, even when education levels have improved. Much social and academic attention has been drawn to explain this puzzling drift—one driver of this decline is the absence of suitable job opportunities for women in fast-growing sectors.

Experts have long debated that flexible work arrangements may benefit women by improving opportunities to balance their household responsibilities, unpaid childcare, and paid work. This has substantially pushed women into the gig economy – a labour market characterized by the prevalence of short-term contracts or freelance work instead of permanent jobs.

In my opinion, however, the gig economy does not offer a fair future of work for women. It ends up romanticizing the ‘I-do-it-all’ image of a woman, which is unrealistic and burdening – why is it that men can be men, but women need to superwomen to be considered successful?

Yes, change takes time. Yes, the gig economy may be well-suited for some, but using the gig economy as a permanent solution instead of a transitional one is an illusional ‘upliftment of women.’

Those who argue for the gig economy in increasing women’s labour force participation often make the mistake of looking at ‘flexibility’ through an extremely narrow lens – considering only how the gig economy allows women more flexible work hours.

But the kind of flexibility that will improve women’s labour market participation rate is the flexibility to choose an occupation they desire, the flexibility to reach and perform to their full potential at the workplace, the flexibility to access social protection mechanisms, the flexibility to demand a more even distribution of household chores, and the flexibility to transform social norms and traditional decision-making paradigms.

The gig economy, while possibly allowing women more flexible work hours, takes away these other forms of flexibility that are crucial in improving the workplace gender ratio. Here’s how :

Exacerbation of Occupational Stereotypes

We can identify cultural biases that consign female workers to specific occupations as a major inflexibility source in the labour market. Not only is the productive potential of a firm left un-maximized, but women are actively discouraged and disadvantaged when entering certain fields. These gender stereotypes may be prevalent in workplaces outside the gig economy. However, research suggests that ‘the expansion of the gig economy portrays a distinct gendered group of workers performing routine work.’ Most labour in the administrative, care and domestic help departments in the gig economy is supplied by women, whereas 95% of Uber drivers and 94% of delivery men are males.

This defaulting to stereotypes about the ability of women to perform specific tasks can be accredited to a few factors. First, it is routine for employers within the gig economy to make employment choices based on limited information about job applicants. This, coupled with the short-term nature of jobs in the gig economy, triggers the use of ‘cognitive shortcuts about intrinsic gender characteristics linked to different skills and occupations’ (Hernan Galperin, 2019). By this, female workers are less likely to be hired for jobs traditionally believed to be ‘male-oriented,’ such as software development, than male candidates they might be more qualified than.

Gender-Based Stereotypes Are Prevalent In Workplaces

The gig economy’s brainchild ‘People Per Hour’s’ ad campaign substantiates this cognitive and cultural bias. Their slogan ‘You do the girl boss thing, we’ll do the SEO thing’ assumes the inability of women to master ‘tech’ services. When they imply that even women in high leadership posts require help with SEOs, it is inevitable for these conditions to transcend across gig markets, in turn enhancing gender-based occupational roles and reducing female worker’s opportunity and pay in jobs such as technical services that constitute a major part of the gig economy. These stereotypes might be prevalent in workplaces outside the gig economy too, but various laws and practices are in place to limit them there. When conventional employer-employee relations are substituted with individual transactions on a global scale, the enforcement of anti-discrimination labour laws become ever more challenging.

Hindrance in the leadership ladder and increased risk of harassment is concerning. Women are curtailed somewhat, stripped from the opportunity of assuming leadership roles due to the short-term character of gig jobs, aggravating the preposterous rate of top women executives globally.

This problem materializes because of the ambiguous classification of gig workers. As mentioned previously, federal laws and human-resources departments exist to address harassment, discrimination, and other similar issues. Gig workers, however, function outside this sphere. There are held accountable but are not adequately accounted for. This, mixed with the transient nature of work that makes them easily replaceable, leaves gig workers highly vulnerable.

Creating a more flexible traditional workplace for women is undoubtedly a complex task. The gig economy leaves it open for businesses to offer gig opportunities to women in the workplace instead of actively striving to create flexibility in the traditional workspace that caters to all women.

Moreover, 54% of female freelance workers per survey in the USA were reported: “sexually harassed in the course of their work.” Of those, 77% cited “unprofessional comments” about their appearance, three-quarters were called “demeaning nicknames” on the job, and a horrifying 60% reported “physical intimidation.”

Taken as a snapshot of the larger picture, these numbers indicate the extensive problem with safety within the gig economy, which functions far outside a decent accountability structure. One might argue that sexual assault and harassment are common in any workplace. However, a lack of support mechanisms from the employer – present in traditional workspaces – turn the gig economy into an exploitative business model with abuse in the form of low wages, a lack of basic worker’s rights, and a higher potential for harassment/violence and impunity.

Lack of Safety Mechanisms Within The Gig Economy Is Concerning

The lack of safety mechanisms is exacerbated by a lack of social benefit mechanisms within the gig economy. Falling under the veil of a self-employed worker excludes you, in most circumstances, from paid sick or holiday leaves, and specific to women limits you to a maternity allowance instead of statutory maternity pay. This can very easily lead to burnout from overwork and erosion of employee rights.

The recent Pimlico Plumbers case, despite the worker winning his claim to be identified as a worker for the company instead of self-employed, was not granted holiday pay, demonstrates the underlying problem and is one of many such cases.

Furthermore, there are several opportunities that women forego when they choose to be a part of the gig economy, such as growth and development training.

Finally, tackling the argument that the gig economy ‘allows more flexible hours’: workers can’t simply pick up work whenever they wish. Clients own demand for gigs as they have a wide range of workers available all the time. Due to this, workers can’t just step out and get to work; they have to wait until they get a booking for their service.

Moreover, the prevalent rating system in the gig economy can make it harder for those with overall less availability as they have completed few gigs, and the algorithm of several platforms underscores workers with the highest numbers of ‘jobs’ done. Just how flexible the gig economy is with work hours is debatable. How potent it is in triggering a higher sense of insecurity, I would say, is not.

The evolution of women in the workforce can be defined by a few key turning points. Throughout history, the biggest increase in women’s labour force participation rate was when women set aside their ‘traditional’ roles to serve their nations during crises and wars. However, the flaw with this is our acceptance of women’s ‘traditional’ jobs being household work and anything they do apart from that as their ‘side’ or ‘circumstantial’ work.

The gig economy exacerbates this lack of permanency that women deserve in the workplace by allowing them the ‘flexibility’ to balance household chores with ‘some’ work instead of promoting equal division of household chores – which, in the long term, is what we need to balance the gender ratio at work.

Thus, the gig economy provides an illusional fantasy of ‘work flexibility’ while taking away the stage from policies to actually secure adequately paid employment and flexible working conditions. Focusing only on work timing flexibility is a failure to recognize that women take on more unpaid care than men in the first place – leaving women to fit in even more hours of work instead of involving men to rectify this inequality.

In conclusion, shifting women into an occupationally immobile market possesses serious safety concerns, and where employers do not provide any social benefits may not constitute increasing workplace flexibility in the long run.

We need to stimulate normal social change that makes it customary for men to take on a fairer share of household work and the development of infrastructures such as childcare facilities that truly give women the flexibility to choose between the traditional workplace or the gig economy, and consequently, an occupation they desire, a pay they deserve, and the opportunity to live the life they dream.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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