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‘Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?’: This Sci-Fi Book Packages Action With Existentialism

Author: Philip K Dick
Published: 1968
Genre: Dystopic Science Fiction


Philip K Dick’s post-apocalyptic world is a result of World War Terminus, a nuclear war that makes Earth inhabitable for most life forms. The radioactive atmosphere is detrimental to human health and causes many animal species to go extinct. Most of humankind, who score well on the IQ test and have not yet lost the ability to procreate (the “regulars”), are incentivised to emigrate to other planet colonies. The incentive is Androids — humanoid robots — designed to serve humans on these colonies. The “specials”, humans who cannot procreate and have a low IQ, form a sub-class of humans left on Earth to perish in their own time.

Mercerism is a spiritual/religious belief that has gained force on Earth. Its practices and beliefs are centered around empathy, a trait also purported to distinguish humans, especially from androids being designed to increasingly resemble humans. Mercerism’s tenet to honour all organic life in addition to the endangered status of the few animals left makes possession of a real animal, even an insect, a symbol of luxury and ethical living in this dystopic world.


Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? covers a day in the life and deliberations of a bounty hunter with the San Francisco Police Department. His job requires him to “retire” rogue “andys” (androids) — ones that have killed their human owners in colonies and escaped servitude to live on Earth. Deckard receives an order to retire six Nexus-6 androids that day. Although a dangerous task, he agrees in the hope of replacing his electric sheep with a real animal with his bounty money.

However, this latest subtype of androids has a high IQ and closely resembles that of humans, so much so that the Voigt-Kampff test used for identification is not entirely dependable. Lines are blurred between androids and humans due to technological advancement and the rising existential questions: what makes him human — his work, his morals or his biological birth and instincts; does feeling empathy or sexual attraction for an android retract from his human-ness; is the purpose of his life to raise a real animal at all costs? This blurring hinders Deckard’s work and causes him to spiral in the last two chapters.


Dick sews the world-building deftly within the story. He does not bury his readers under a deluge of information. He balances between telling and showing his fictional world and its workings. For example, Mercerism is introduced in Chapter 2: the reason why John Isidore practices “fusion with Mercer” is followed by his account of experiencing it. Mercerism’s origin, other humans’ reasons for believing in Mercerism, androids’ thoughts on it, and how it has organised life on Earth — surface throughout the book to enhance the storyline.

Dick employs the third-person-voice to offer a rich and multifaceted narrative that is not mentally fatiguing. The narrative voice that often gives Deckard’s thoughts space stretches to accommodate John K. Isidore’s, a “special,” sub-plot. He exists on the geographical and the social hierarchy’s outskirts. His thoughts and deeds, coloured by his lived experience, supplement Deckard’s, though often in contrast (he attempts to protect three androids that Deckard is after). The narrative even stages the voice, fears and dreams of the androids, further adding to Deckard’s dilemmas.

At the same time, this layered voice gives readers a fair bit of distance from the text’s philosophical ruminations. The third-person-voice helps readers in engaging with Deckard’s questions and concerns without being overwhelmed. I enjoyed the brief grazing with Deckard’s uncertainty as the possibility of him being an android gets real.

Final Word

This science fiction book palatably packages action and suspense with existential questions, which are informed by the presence of androids that dream of freedom in a post-apocalyptic Earth. It has no technobabble and is less than 250 pages long. Only its attacks on the foundations of our identity make it a daunting read.

I heartily recommend this book.

Rating: 4/5

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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