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Urban Flooding: What’s The Way Forward From This Man-Made Pandemic

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Urban flooding, a man-made disaster, has plagued India’s sustainable growth ambitions. Known to mostly affect densely populated areas by inundating the constructed setting, it has become a major cause of concern. Lately, India has witnessed urban flooding in Mumbai (2005), Kolkata (2007), Delhi (2009), Bangalore (2015), and Hyderabad (2020).

Global Warming Is Aggravating The Global Problem of Urban Flooding

However, urban flooding is not India-specific; many such floods are witnessed worldwide. To mitigate flooding risks, very few cities in Asia have developed floodproofing and flood management plans.

A myriad of factors is responsible for such flooding in India, including post-heavy rainfall overwhelming the drainage capacity, flash-floods, melting of snow, water released from damaged sewer systems, overflow from drainage, etc. Further, the rise in sea-levels caused by global warming uncannily aggravates the problem.

A popular belief is that urban dwellings near floodplains are more prone to such a disaster, but the recent floods in landlocked cities have cancelled this presumption. Protecting urban areas that play a vital role in economic infrastructure is crucial.

Representational Image. Most metropolitan Indian cities have paved streets and roads that exacerbate the flood effects by further increasing the flow of water.

Any damages to such pivotal areas will lead to multifold economic losses and threaten resources such as life, property, flora, and fauna. Relocating people within a limited timeframe will add a burden to the authorities.

India’s urban flooding problem has many reasons associated with it. Some of them being the irregular planning of cities, illegal encroachments of groundwater, eliminating natural watercourses that are essential to drain excess water.

Paved Streets Are Adding To The Peak Monsoon Flooding

Most metropolitan Indian cities have paved streets and roads that exacerbate the flood effects by further increasing the flow of water. The impervious surfaces add to the problems of absorption and infiltration of rainfall into the ground; this leads to a higher surface run-off that may be more than the local drainage capacity.

Such flooding is usually witnessed during peak monsoon. The coastal cities, at times, are surged by a storm leading to flooding. Some other causes are the failure to release water from dams, the increasing rainfall over urban areas caused by the urban heat island effect.

Global climate change is another factor that has changed the weather patterns and has increased the episodes of high-intensity rainfall occurring in a shorter span of time. Adding to it is the increase in sea-level that threatens all coastal cities alike.

This has reduced the capacity of smooth drainage, resulting in flooding. For ages, solid waste (domestic, commercial, and industrial waste) and debris from construction have been dumped into the drains, thereby significantly reducing the drainage capacities.

Policies, operations, maintenance actions, and their implementation should be reality focussed. With the rapid surge in population, the demand for living space is met through encroaching floodplains without any proper consultation for urban planning, the effect on marine life, etc. If no proper resolutions are planned immediately, such instances of Urban Flooding will only increase with time.

‘Green Infrastructure’ May Simulateneously Solve Our Problems Of Flooding And Water Crisis

There has been a lot of speculation on how to reduce the chances of flooding. One such solution can be to build away from floodplains and high-flood hazardous zones. Geospatial analysis can help identify such areas. Any new constructions in flood-prone areas should be regularly monitored, and areas where constructions have already finished proven flood control measures such as increasing the stormwater drainage capacitors should be considered.

Government initiatives like the Sponge Cities’ mission and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) are in the pipeline and can be effectively used to address the problem.

Providing proper support and subsidies for the adoption of green infrastructure options like rain gardens, green roofs, and rainwater harvesting systems should be encouraged too. Such systems will reduce flood risks while simultaneously storing water for drier seasons and recharging groundwater.

These will make cities resilient and reduce the loss of life and property. And as responsible citizens, the general public should be wary of buying houses in low-lying areas or near floodplains. A close collaboration between citizens and the government will lead to tangible results in the future.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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