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Water, Forest, Agriculture: What Is Maharashtra’s Action Plan For Climate Change?

Ecology. Development. Disasters. Climate Change. These buzzwords have become a part of our everyday discourse. With frequent occurrences of floods, droughts, cyclones, hailstorms, untimely rains and their devastating effects on the economy, and people’s health and livelihoods, it is time we accept that climate change is happening. We no longer have the luxury to prioritise development over ecology. Rather, we have to ensure that both trajectories progress in a parallel manner and most importantly, in tandem.

Why Is The Maharashtra State Adaptation Action Plan On Climate Change Being Revised?

In 2008, the Government of India (GoI) released the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and in 2009, it directed the states to draft their own climate action plans to amalgamate climate goals with development strategies. The Maharashtra State Adaptation Action Plan on Climate Change (MSAAPCC) adopted by the state government in 2014 explains climate change and its effect on eight sectors, namely water, agriculture, forests, biodiversity, livelihoods, health, energy and infrastructure, and focused on one highly vulnerable region Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)

With the Paris Agreement coming into force in 2016, India, along with other ratifying countries, formed Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to carry out responsible developmental activities in the country. The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, as a result, has asked states to revise their State Action Plans to align them with the country’s NDCs.

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation: The Need of the Hour (Credits: Pixabay)

The revised version of the Maharashtra State Action Plan would include four additional sectors industries, transport, tribal development and tourism — and two sections, finance and planning, that would cut across all 12 of them.

Why Is Public Participation Needed At This Point?

Climate change affects all all sectors of the economy, all communities, all people around the globe. But the effect is disproportionate depending on the socio-economic factors of the population. Every person’s experience of dealing with climate risks is different. Thus, taking into account the diverse experiences becomes all the more pivotal for developing comprehensive climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Such strategies should have a multi-stakeholder approach with participation, advocacy and dialogue being at the heart of it. 

What Does The MSAAPCC 2014 Say About The Following Sectors?


In Maharashtra, the four river basins namely Krishna, Godavari, Tapi and Narmada are monsoon-dependent and together, they support 92% of the agricultural cultivation and more than 60% of the rural population. Groundwater is an important water source due to the integral role it plays in agriculture, industries and domestic purposes. Sadly, it is depleting in central and western Maharashtra due to excessive sugarcane cultivation.

To top it all, 40% of the area in Maharashtra is drought prone and 7% is flood prone. About 90% of the land in the State has basaltic rock, which is nonporous and prevents rainwater percolation into the ground, thus making the area prone to droughts. Floods are a result of damage to the dam embankments, excessive water release from dams, improper storm-water drainage systems and unplanned urbanisation. 

Rainfall patterns have undergone drastic change (decreasing rainfall witnessed in July and increasing rainfall seen in August) due to climate change. There is an increase in projected rainfall in the 2030s, with a projected decrease by the 2050s. This fluctuation can result in water scarcities of varying intensities for rivers Tapi, Narmada, Godavari and Krishna.

With respect to droughts, the frequency is predicted to increase in the future through changes in the hydrological cycle viz. precipitation, evapo-transpiration (ET), soil moisture etc. and additionally, land cover changes may decrease recharge. Rising sea levels will allow saltwater to penetrate further inland and upstream in low lying river deltas. An overall increase in surface runoff is projected in specific catchment areas as well.

The state action plan puts forth points of action for developing sustainable groundwater management mechanisms, retaining and conserving the riparian buffer around the wetlands for improved surface runoff management, conserving and re-naturalising rivers and water bodies, and enhancing water storage and groundwater recharge. 

The plan does not speak about a few significant aspects. It does little to ensure equitable distribution of water and water security for poor communities. Instead, it could lead to construction of more dams, which might further worsen the conditions of rivers. Steps to tackle industries and power plants that consume a lot of water and are responsible for pollution are not mentioned.

Additionally, adaptation measures for communities that are at a high risk of flooding are absent. Urban areas are not getting much attention in the plan either. Concerns of the urban poor and the gendered impact of the water crisis remain unaddressed.

Forests And Biodiversity

Deforestation and forest degradation are major threats to the forests and biodiversity in Maharashtra. There has been a decrease in dense forest cover in Western Ghats by more than 10% and an increase in the area under water bodies (including dams). Land cover changes owing to expansion of human settlement and agriculture has worsened the problem. 

The northern and central parts of Western Ghats are vulnerable to climate change while the southern part appears more resilient. Increased fire risks in savannah woodlands, increased aridity, reduced fodder availability, fragmentation of habitats and extinction of specific species from evergreen forests, severe threat to the flora and fauna already under threat currently, and increased salinity in coastal zones affecting local fish species sums up the impact of climate change on ecosystems.

Likewise, sea-level rise, developmental activities, changes in frequency and levels of high water events and storm events, along with rise in temperature, altered ocean circulation patterns and changes in precipitation would have an impact on mangroves and will continue to do so unless we take remedial steps.

The action plan states action points for enhancing quality of forest cover and improving ecosystem services, diversifying livelihood options, and promoting scientific monitoring and research for improved decision-making. It also includes launching a Green Maharashtra Mission 2020 for biodiversity, developing buffers, conserving biodiversity, promoting ecosystem research on climate variability and reducing the non-climatic stressors on the mangrove ecosystem by formulation of Regional Monitoring Networks. 

However, the plan does not address land acquisition and deforestation caused by government development projects or industrialists. The violation of rights and existing climate vulnerabilities of tribal communities have not been acknowledged. Their activities are seen as “threats” to forests, completely nullifying their role in conservation efforts.

Soil And Agriculture

Maharashtra is predominantly still an agrarian state with 56.5% of the land being cultivated. However, only 19.64% of the cultivated land is irrigated, while the remaining land is directly dependent on rainfall. A shift from cultivation of foodgrains and forage crops to cash crops has been observed with the area under cultivation of pulse crops and horticulture still being high. There has been a growth in the use of crucial inputs such as irrigation, chemical fertilisers and high-yielding variety seeds, but productivity of crops in the state has not improved much, rather, it has decreased in some cases. 

Lack of irrigation facilities along with issues of soil erosion, salination of irrigated lands, degradation of pastures, water pollution and overexploitation of forest stocks remain a challenge for the State. Changing temperatures, pests and pathogens, moisture changes, water availability and CO2 concentrations have led to changes in crop growth cycle and stunted growth of crops.  

Hard Work in The Field by Small Farmers

Climate change effects are seen to escalate the vulnerabilities of the farmers who already suffer from a low risk coping capacity and have to navigate through unorganised agricultural markets and food supply, unavailability of sufficient cold storage, and post harvest losses regularly. In case of perishables, horticulture crops that fetch high commercial returns, lower quality produce results in losses. Due to weather changes, the arrival patterns of the crop in the market is affected creating demand-supply discrepancies.   

In the case of livestock, increased temperatures lead to high body temperatures of animals, resulting in decline in feed intake, disturbed reproductive functions and low milk yields. This increases their susceptibility to a number of diseases and makes them more prone to vector-borne diseases and severe weather events. 

Fishing as a livelihood option is also impacted due to temperature rise, sea level rise, salinity and acidification. The abundance of certain species as well as overall harvests and resultant incomes are facing a threat with fishing stock and distribution, infrastructure and operations taking a severe hit due to extreme weather events like floods and storms. A macro-effect here would be the impact on food security and culture that could push the fishing communities to migrate and force them to change their livelihood option. 

The Action Plan throws light on the urgent need to secure farmers through improved access to climate services and risk management strategies. Enhancing resilience of farming systems through diversified cropping patterns and farming systems, soil conservation, increased access to markets needs to be the central idea behind adaptation strategies. Securing food supply chains through enhanced access to cold storage infrastructure, warehousing facilities and urban food zones should also be taken up.

However, the Action Plan does not prioritise discontinuation of chemicals used in agriculture and the need to shift to organic or natural farming. Intensive tillage practices that worsen soil quality have not been addressed well. Monocropping methods have not been acknowledged as detrimental and multi-cropping has not been highlighted as an important adaptive measure.


With global temperatures only rising, the demand for cooling facilities would soar especially in the urban areas. Thus, with more urban development, this demand is only going to rise further. The Action Plan does little on the energy sector front, but it does put forward a few action points.

The Energy section of the plan speaks in the context of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region and suggests building green roofs atop settlements’ to safeguard the rich flora and fauna that urban areas boast of. To push for its implementation, the plan suggests making necessary amendments to the Building bye laws to make it mandatory for the developmental projects to build green roofs. Additionally, the plan also mentions promotion of cleaner forms of energy, encouraging shift to energy efficient systems to conserve energy, and most importantly, climate proofing of new public infrastructure. 

The plan fails to state the impacts of increasing temperature on power grids and on transmission losses. The chapter does not address other applications of fossil fuel energy such as transportation. The limitations of being highly dependent on coal and fossil fuels have not been addressed well. Infrastructure has been very poorly covered and poor households that would need assistance with climate change adaptation have not even been mentioned. 

Acknowledgement: I would like to thank Dr Sheeva Yamuna for her inputs and feedback on this article.

About the author: Vindhya Jyoti is an active member of the South Asian People’s Action on Climate Crisis (SAPACC), a rainbow coalition of organisations and individuals that was formed in May 2019 to bring together youth, women, farmers, workers, fisher folk, scientists, and people of all walks of life who are concerned with the climate crisis.

Note: The SAPACC Maharashtra team is trying to make the MSAAPCC revision process both comprehensive and inclusive by  bringing in diverse views and recommendations from people across sectors and regions in the state. You can share with us your thoughts, suggestions or details about the ongoing work related to any of the above-mentioned sectors via email at  To know more about SAPACC, visit their website.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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