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How This Deadly Ritual Of Exile Affects Menstruating People In South-East Asia

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TW: Mention of sexual violence

With its picturesque mountains and exquisite temples, Nepal has garnered itself the reputation of being one of the most captivating tourist spots in southeast Asia, frequented by travellers from all around the world. In the remote far-western parts of the relatively small country,  just outside the residential villages, tourists might find themselves encountering poorly-constructed huts (often made of mud and straw) lacking in bedding, furniture, and even basic sanitary facilities. Such are the characteristics of a ‘chhau’ hut, where menstruating women find themselves exiled to, every month during their periods. 

Chhaupadi huts (or menstruation huts) are often shared by multiple families living in the village. Women and girls who are exiled to these huts are left with little to no amenities to fend for themselves. From the hottest of summers to the coldest of winters, they have no choice but to retreat to these unhygienic sheds as soon as they start menstruating. Proper and hygienic sanitary products are luxuries mostly inaccessible; they are left with nothing but old, unclean rags to soak up the menstrual blood. When rags are not available, some resort to using hay,  sand, or ash to soak up menstrual blood. Some places lack clean running water, forcing menstruators into a painful fight against urogenital bacterial infections and reproductive health problems arising from lack of hygiene and sanitation. 

The word “chhaupadi” itself is derived from a Nepali word having the negative connotations of ‘impurity’ often associated with menstruation. The belief stems from an undoubtedly patriarchal Hindu myth in the Vedas, wherein Indra commits the act of “brahma-hatya” (killing a sage), and for his evil deed, women are punished with the curse of menstruation. Despite the religious undertones of the practice, menstruating women cannot even take refuge in the idea of God during their exile, as praying or worship of any form is forbidden. 

Two women sitting inside a cramped and dilapidated menstrual hut.
The practice of ‘chhaupadi’ isolates menstruating people from society, forcing them to survive under extremely unhygienic and unsafe conditions. Image Credits: WaterAid, Poulomi Basu

The Chhaupadi hut takes the form of a ‘gaokar’ in India, where the practice is just as frequent in the states of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa. Without a place to cook their food, women have to rely on a family member to bring them their meals regularly. The huts are considered to be public property, hence nobody looks into it for maintenance and upkeep. These huts situated in the outskirts of the villages have little to no protection for the women residing in them. There have been countless incidents of sexual violence and rape meted out to these women while they were isolated. Other times, there have been reports of wild animals and snakes attacking the women, often proving to be fatal. Women have died due to asphyxiation, or have been burnt alive in these chambers while trying to light a fire to keep themselves warm. In 2018, during a cyclone rampage in Tamil Nadu, a 14-year old girl was killed while she was in isolation during her periods. 

Although the practice of Chhaupadi was criminalised in Nepal in August 2018 with a hefty fine (of Rs. 3000) imposed on those who were caught practicing it, the isolation continues to take place as 77% of the population still continue with the custom. It begs a vital question. Despite the large number of deaths, assaults, and the trauma it causes to the women, why is this practice so widely prevalent in south-Asian countries? Well, for one, the traditions have been passed down for centuries on end; it is not an easy feat to uproot centuries worth of patriarchal religious stigma that has its roots deep in the societal fabric of these countries. Some fear that God might ‘get angry’ if they fail to uphold this age-old custom. The fear of being ostracised or excommunicated from their society also prevents women from speaking up against it. They are reluctant to report to the law enforcement as it would mean betraying their own families, and in turn, their ‘honour’.

The practice of seclusion of menstruating people goes beyond the range of south-Asian religious beliefs, as women in Ethiopia are forced to leave their homes during their periods. Even during childbirth, the pregnant woman is supposed to give birth alone in the woods without any help- often risking the lives of both the mother and the infant. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a common practice among African countries which makes it harder for women to menstruate freely or give birth. Women are rejected the autonomy over their own bodies, and they are segregated, usually against their wills.

This physical seclusion takes various forms, other than the confinement to huts- women are not allowed to touch other family members, food, or cattle for the sake of maintaining the sanctity of their households. Any food they touch or water they use is considered to be ‘polluted’ and ‘unholy’. Some fear that menstruating people are always prone to getting possessed by evil spirits or subjected to black magic by maleficent people. 

Even in urban towns and cities, menstruating people are made to sleep in separate rooms or ‘verandahs’ (balconies) to prevent them from getting in contact with other (especially male) family members. They are made to wear separate clothes and use separate utensils from the rest of the family. Some are not allowed to shower or wash themselves as it would mean using the common bathroom, and in turn pose a risk of polluting the other members of the family. Even girls from educated families are subjected to similar unavailing ‘customs’ during menstruation. 

A group of street theatre actors discussing the practice of 'chhaupadi' as onlookers listen.
A mass community health teaching session: a street theatre group discussing chhaupadi. Image credits: Flickr, NyayaHealth

Activists are trying to help girls in Nepal by providing them with menstrual cups to battle the age-old Chhaupadi tradition. They found that it has a 92%  acceptance rate among young girls, as their families allowed them to stay at homes and cook food, unaware of the fact that they were menstruating. However, this is regarded as a ‘band-aid’ solution to the problem, since it has little to do with actually creating a change in the religious, cultural, and social mentalities of the people.

All of the stigma and taboo associated with menstruation is a result of the belief that menstrual blood is ‘impure’ and ‘unholy’. The lack of knowledge and awareness about basic human anatomy and the female reproductive system leads to the myriad of superstitions and steadfast prohibitions surrounding menstruation. Period blood is not ‘dirty blood’ or filled with toxins; and yet, menstruating people are treated as untouchable. According to this survey conducted by Youth Ki Awaaz in association with WSSCC, 90.1% of respondents believed that certain activities should be prohibited for menstruating people (such as bathing, praying, and even talking to the opposite sex). 79% of Indian girls reported that they were not aware of menstrual hygiene practices.

We are taught from childhood that menstruation is something shameful, which can only be talked about in hushed voices (or better still, not at all). The humiliation may sometimes take the form of ‘menstruation shaming’ in schools by fellow students or even teachers; in 2017, a 12-year-old girl from southern India committed suicide after being shamed by a teacher for having period stains on her clothes. Countless women across the world undergo severe trauma resulting due to isolation, some having to potentially put their lives at risk for the sake of ‘protecting’ their families. Another example of this institutionalized oppression would be the controversy surrounding the Sabarimala temple, where women of reproductive age are still not allowed to step inside (despite the ban being lifted). It goes to show that legislation is not proving to be enough, as there are multiple ways around it; what is truly necessary is education and awareness programs at the grassroot levels of society. 

The entire process of ‘othering’ menstruating people is something that stems from the patriarchal notion that women are lesser beings. Our value is judged on the basis of our reproductive abilities- a good, pure woman is someone who makes the patriarch of the family happy by being in his service forever. Her sexuality must not be expressed at any point of time: she exists only to be used by men whenever they please. Our bodies have been dictated over, used, abused, mutilated, and violated for centuries- most of us still do not know what having autonomy over ourselves means. The Chhaupadi huts are only but a physical manifestation of the deeply ingrained misogyny; the change can take place only within the communities when menstruating people decide to stand up for themselves and uproot the belief systems that have oppressed them perpetually. 

Featured Image Credit: Reuters, Navesh Chitrakar
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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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