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Even After Decades Of Activism, Why Does Patriarchy Refuse To Go?

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Written by: Aditi

Content warning- Mention of patriarchal oppression

Patriarchy refers to the autocratic rule by the male head of a family. The concept of patriarchy was developed to explain male dominance as a social, rather than biological, phenomenon.

According to such a view, women are regarded as the oppressed gender and men are superior to them in every aspect. The oppressed gender is the weaker sex and less capable than man, especially in the realm of logic and rational reasoning. Women are relegated to the domestic realm of nurturance and emotions. Therefore, according to that reasoning, they cannot be good leaders in business, politics or academia. Although they are seen as naturally fit for domestic work and are good caretakers, their roles are devalued or not valued at all when compared with the works of the people who identify as male.

Even after decades of activism, why does patriarchy still persist?

The answer may seem obvious: it persists because it maintains a system in which people who identify as male have power — political, economic, institutional — and what man would want to give that up?

Internalised patriarchy pushes aside one’s better judgment and the person sacrifices their needs to fall in line with how they think they’re supposed to behave. By not falling in line, they risk sticking out for all the wrong reasons, potentially driving away friends, partners or professional opportunities, ultimately resulting in isolation. For an instance, boys are taught that crying is synonymous to weakness, while girls learn that assertiveness equals aggressiveness.

As adults, it manifests in other ways as well — in how women shoulder their family’s emotional labour, i.e. the invisible mental work of holding a household and relationship together. If women register that this is unfair and complains, they’re often told that they’re being “selfish, a drama queen or hysterical.” Eventually, “women believed it.” That’s patriarchy.

The patriarchal system is neither natural nor God-given, but socially constructed; the architects of this construction are the professionals. They make the laws and rules we live by, they control our access to resources, and they oversee the extraction of labour and distribution of what is produced. Markets help and obfuscate patriarchy. We are dependent on this system as well as oppressed by it. The system is almost compulsory inescapable, given its reach in the world.

In India, we are still struggling to free ourselves from the chains of biasness of society as well as the laws. India is a land where patriarchy has existed since time immemorial and become an instrument to justify the law, too. One such category of law is the Family law.

The oppressed gender in their different roles has not been kept at par with the men in the field of family law. The scenario that existed years ago is in transition and changing for the better, but there are evils that make it difficult to make laws gender-neutral and unbiased.

Representational image.

Being a part of this system, we are always scampering and asked to do certain things later in our life. Children are asked to function in certain ways to do certain things that won’t exfoliate our society’s motto. We always have to keep culture, family and gender in our minds. Then comes the aspect of comparison where we are approximated to the other gender(s), a gender that is invariably privileged to do things and is never speculated twice for doing things.

Sociologist Sylvia Walby has composed six overlapping structures that define patriarchy and take different forms in different cultures and different times:

  • The state: Oppressed gender is unlikely to have formal power and representation.
  • The household: Oppressed gender is more likely to do the housework and raise children.
  • Violence: Oppressed gender is more prone to being abused.
  • Paid work: Oppressed gender is likely to be paid less.
  • Sexuality: Oppressed gender sexuality is more likely to be treated negatively.
  • Culture: Representation of oppressed gender in media, and popular culture is “within a patriarchal gaze”.

Patriarchal ideologies support oppression. For Firestone, the oppressed gender must gain control over reproduction to be free from oppression. Fun fact: if we glimpse things clearly from every possible perspective, we will come to know what the actual dilemma is. But nobody knows what the dilemma is.

Well, it’s a game of hiding and seeking if we never go to seek things out, interrogate our rights, take a stand for each other or unite before looking at what genitals we carry. Maybe we all can finish this game, but if we never bring this to consideration, we will end up hiding as we have been doing so far. This will not help the country achieve a gender-equal society in the foreseeable future.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

Read more about his campaign.

Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

Read more about her campaign.

MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Read more about her campaign. 

A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

Find out more about the campaign here.

A native of Bhagalpur district – Bihar, Shalini Jha believes in equal rights for all genders and wants to work for a gender-equal and just society. In the past she’s had a year-long association as a community leader with Haiyya: Organise for Action’s Health Over Stigma campaign. She’s pursuing a Master’s in Literature with Ambedkar University, Delhi and as an MHM Fellow with YKA, recently launched ‘Project अल्हड़ (Alharh)’.

She says, “Bihar is ranked the lowest in India’s SDG Index 2019 for India. Hygienic and comfortable menstruation is a basic human right and sustainable development cannot be ensured if menstruators are deprived of their basic rights.” Project अल्हड़ (Alharh) aims to create a robust sensitised community in Bhagalpur to collectively spread awareness, break the taboo, debunk myths and initiate fearless conversations around menstruation. The campaign aims to reach at least 6000 adolescent girls from government and private schools in Baghalpur district in 2020.

Read more about the campaign here.

A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

The Transmen-ses campaign aims to tackle the issue of silence and disregard for trans men’s menstruation needs, by mobilising gender sensitive health professionals and gender neutral restrooms in Lucknow.

Read more about the campaign here.

A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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