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Progress And Prospects Of Renewable Energy Transition In India

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India is the fastest-growing economy at a rate of 5% every year and is currently the fifth-largest economy globally (Investopedia). This growth has a lot of different facets. It leads to certain externalities. There is an exponential rise in the consumption and manufacturing of goods and services to keep up with growing demands, but the country also has a large population in rural areas of about 288 million that currently do not have access to grid-based electricity.

Rural girls studying in light bulb
Representative Image.

In 2020, energy should be a basic human right that is available to everyone without prejudice. In the current atmosphere during COVID-19, it has been almost impossible to conduct life without access to the internet. Ultimately, everything is governed by access to electricity right now. 

While India has long invested in building solar power plants and hydropower plants, it is not without dispute. There is also a need to consider the needs of the rural communities, some of which are still using Bunsen burners and chimney lamps for light and heat, which doesn’t give much room for improvement in the quality of life.

In the age where sustainable development goals are driving progress forward and many governments are exploring ways to attain these goals, this paper aims to review where India stands regarding its energy policy and the pathway forward for them.

Improvements are being made in outfitting rural homes with non-traditional forms of electricity, such as solar-powered household electronics such as a hurricane lamp or a solar power stove or cooker. However, there is still a lack of access to grid electricity. This begs the question of whether these electricity alternatives empower the communities that have access to them or if it’s just allowing the current policies to overlook the rural poor and cheat them out of formal grid access? 

As is the trend with many growing economies, a significant population from rural areas are migrating to cities in search of more opportunities and improvement in the quality of life. This renders those left behind in the rural areas less important and puts a strain on the ever-increasing demand and the equal supply necessary, which is expected to hit 31% of the world’s energy usage by 2035.

India is currently exploring transition fuels in nuclear, biomass, geothermal and ethanol. The former’s share in the energy mix will rise to 25% by 2050 (Kumar et al., 2020), but investments are being made in solar and wind energy infrastructure being made while the country’s fossil fuel repositories are depleting. 

Wind turbines generate electricity in Tamil Nadu, India
In 2009, India invested ₹135 billion in clean energy to pursue its advancement in the renewable energy transition. (Photo by Creative Touch Imaging Ltd./NurPhoto via Getty Images)

In 1992, the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources was established to drive development and progress in the renewable energy sector. Renewable energy in the energy mix is expected to fulfil 35% of power demand by 2030, with the probability of reducing up to 45% of greenhouse emission. As there has been steady advancement in technology, it has been responsible for electricity consumption and improving the quality of life.

As India’s power generation system is centralised, governmental resources and policy tools have failed to offer power to all 1.3 billion of its people, with approximately one-third of the electricity being lost to theft. However, with the help of private governance, there is an opportunity for distribution through franchise models in urban areas.

In 2009, India invested ₹135 billion in clean energy to pursue its advancement in the renewable energy transition. In addition to the Electricity Act of 2003, the National Electricity Policy (NEP) was established. By acting upon this investment and policy, it is expected that 175 GW of renewable energy capacity is set to be installed by 2022, which will increase the capacity of renewable energy electricity generation up to 40%.

The NEPs framework should also be focusing on building basic infrastructure and providing energy-efficient solutions in rural areas.

Transition fuels are an energy source that has been in place in the context of non-fossil fuel energy sources in India for a while. Currently, biomass is a significant energy source for household and industrial use, at more than 1% of the required electricity globally. Due to the amount of food waste that is accumulated and the cheaper infrastructure and small area required for the proper functioning of biomass, it has been widely used across India in mostly rural areas.

The Clean Development Mechanism is employed to attract more economic projects that will get incentives like subsidies. 

Among different renewable energy sources, wind energy production is almost entirely governed by the private sector. However, the central government’s part is to support the operation by launching an array of different financial incentives and innovative schemes that draws in the private sector in the first place. The wind power potential is at 302 GW and the industry is on its way to achieving the set goal of 60 GW ahead of its 2022 goal (Kumar et al., 2019). 

An important aspect of the production of non-fossil fuel electricity is the cost. The need for advanced technology and the implementation of infrastructure is expensive. In a country like India, where the wealth gap is large, the affordability of renewable energy is not possible for all communities of the country to achieve. This creates a positive feedback mechanism, wherein the energy produced by renewable energy sources is more expensive and it has been easier to lean on fossil fuels and transition fuels instead.

The policies above have helped in the diversification of energy sources. The impact of FDI and subsidies has lured the private sector into investing more in the renewable energy sector. However, since the central and state governments are not working in tandem to achieve the expected low carbon energy mix, this is causing a lag in the development of the transition. 

Another significant factor to include in the larger discussion of renewable energy sources is that every single one of these alternatives has externalities in different domains. The three mains: solar, wind and hydropower, are land-intensive, wherein they occupy a lot of space that would lead to habitat displacement of people and animals.

Solar uses natural resources that are finite such as silicon, wind raises a lot of issues around birds and noise pollution, and hydropower is perhaps the most contentious out of all three — displaces lives, disrupts the river ecosystem that it is built upon, and also affects the way water reaches people.

Biomass Cow Dung
Representative Image.

Transition fuels such as biomass, nuclear, ethanol, etc., also have issues concerning waste storage and emission productions. These are some issues to consider when pursuing a low carbon economy. However, there is consensus that transition fuels are better than fossil fuels and large-scale renewable energy sources are the ultimate goal to reach the 2-degree goal. 

The Indian central government and private sectors have been working hard at increasing the energy mix to reflect more renewable energy sources. Thus, leaps and bounds have been made towards the progress. However, with the high costs that renewable energy poses, the risk for energy injustice is much higher.

In summary, there are policies and private governance strategies that are addressing the increasing demand for energy in accordance with the energy transition, but the method in which they are also addressing that over 280 million citizens do not have access to energy is unclear.

Energy justice is important because electricity is a human right and leads to increased economic development. More people with access to educational tools through electricity will be able to work more skilled jobs.

Apoorva Muthukumar wrote this piece as part of Yugma Network’s renewable energy series. You can read more research papers here.


Nain, Md Zulquar, Wasim Ahmad, and Bandi Kamaiah. 2017. Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in India: A Disaggregated Causal Analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Energy 36 (8). Taylor and Francis Ltd.

Charles Rajesh Kumar, J., D. Vinod Kumar, and M. A. Majid. Wind Energy Programme in India: Emerging Energy Alternatives for Sustainable Growth. Energy and Environment 1 Nov. 2019: 1135–1189. Energy and Environment.

Kumar, Ravinder et al. A Review Status on Alternative Arrangements of Power Generation Energy Resources and Reserve in India. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies 1 May 2020: 224–240. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

Saurabh has been associated with YKA as a user and has consistently been writing on the issue MHM and its intersectionality with other issues in the society. Now as an MHM Fellow with YKA, he’s launched the Right to Period campaign, which aims to ensure proper execution of MHM guidelines in Delhi’s schools.

The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

With YKA MHM Fellow Vineet, Sabna launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society. As a start, the campaign aims to begin conversations on menstrual health with five hundred adolescents and youth in Delhi through offline platforms, and through this community mobilise support to create Period Friendly Institutions out of educational institutes in the city.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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A psychologist and co-founder of a mental health NGO called Customize Cognition, Ritika forayed into the space of menstrual health and hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights and gender equality as an MHM Fellow with YKA. She says, “The experience of working on MHM/SRHR and gender equality has been an enriching and eye-opening experience. I have learned what’s beneath the surface of the issue, be it awareness, lack of resources or disregard for trans men, who also menstruate.”

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A Computer Science engineer by education, Nitisha started her career in the corporate sector, before realising she wanted to work in the development and social justice space. Since then, she has worked with Teach For India and Care India and is from the founding batch of Indian School of Development Management (ISDM), a one of its kind organisation creating leaders for the development sector through its experiential learning post graduate program.

As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

Find out more about her campaign here.

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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