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Post-Second Wave, Domestic Workers At Higher Risk Of Sexual Harassment At Work Than Ever

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This post is a part of YKA’s dedicated coverage of the novel coronavirus outbreak and aims to present factual, reliable information. Read more.

By Nitya Sriram

“When his children and grandchildren would go out, he would purposely stay home and keep following me around. He would pat my back, but then his hands would wander. I tried to ignore it. I knew no one would believe me if I told them, so I kept quiet. 

“That man used to tell me, ‘Wear a short dress, you will look better in it.’ I put up with it because I had to earn to support my family.” – Kainaat (25, name changed), of Harijan Basti, Gurgaon, as told to Human Rights Watch in its 2020 report No #MeToo for Women Like Us.

For women domestic workers, a community numbering roughly 4.2 million in India according to official estimates (unofficial estimates place numbers at least ten times more), the world of work is rent with experiences of sexual and gender-based violence.

In 2018, the Martha Farrell Foundation, through an art-based participatory action research project with and by women domestic workers in Gurgaon, found that while experiences of sexual and gender-based violence in the workplace are common, there’s very little inclination among them to report them or seek justice.

Fear of repercussions such as loss of job and societal stigma, fear of being disbelieved or fear of being further marginalised in the judicial system are just some reasons.

“When I told my employer [I was being sexually harassed by a sanitation worker], she said ‘You only must have done something. Aur apni zulfein kholkar jao (It’s your fault for leaving your hair open).’ ” – Sheela (26, name changed), of Harijan Basti, Gurgaon, as told to the Martha Farrell Foundation during the Domestic Workers’ Postcard Campaign in January 2021

In a National Consultation with and by domestic workers, organised by the Foundation in 2019, domestic workers and other stakeholders present underscored the need for trained, responsive and sensitive Local Committees, set up under the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013.

To date, however, Local Committees have either not been formed or remain untrained and unaware of the layered challenges faced by domestic workers in their world of work. Moreover, women domestic workers remain unaware of the law, or whether there are Local Committees in their districts in the first place.

No Bargaining Chip

Domestic workers belong to the informal economy and excluded from core labour laws, including minimum wage. They set their rates for work based on locality to locality. Negotiating hours, weekly offs or paid maternity leave is out of the question for them. Under cover of a situation where the odds are stacked against them, the crime of sexual harassment in their world of work thrives, and perpetrators walk away unaffected.

“There was a domestic worker in the building where I work who was raped and thrown from the eleventh floor by her employer. We protested and gathered at the police station, but there was no help.” – Jaya (26, name changed), of Harijan Basti, Gurgaon, as told to the Martha Farrell Foundation during the Domestic Workers’ Postcard Campaign in January 2021

Now, in light of the pandemic, the few demands they used to make with respect to their wages and time off have also been sidelined, as has been their ability to look out for safe workplaces and working conditions.

Impacts Of The Pandemic

Image from Martha Farrell Foundation’s COVID-19 Relief Kit Drive for Domestic Workers in Delhi-NCR. Donate a kit here.

The second wave has impacted domestic workers insidiously. The twin challenges of job loss and infection have rendered many without income or money, pushing families across the board to the brink of starvation. The Martha Farrell Foundation’s ongoing data collection revealed that out of 2328 women domestic workers in Delhi and Haryana, 100% said their immediate need is ration.

“Kaam nahi hai, toh khaana kaise khaayenge (How will we eat, if I don’t work and earn)?” says Priya Devi (name changed), a domestic worker from Nandlal Basti, a slum settlement in Gopalpur, Delhi.

Usha Devi’s five children and she are surviving on the ration given by the school where her two youngest sons go. Her husband died 8 years ago, and she is the sole breadwinner of the family. “Chawal, dal aur dalda diya hai abhi school mein (We have received some rice, dal and dalda),” she says. Having lost all her jobs in the second wave, she’s desperate to find work.

Reena (name changed), a domestic worker living in Bengali Colony in Delhi, says, “Kaam nahi hai toh paise kaise aayenge? Hum udhar le leke kaam chala rahe hain, abhi (Without work, there’s no money. We’re living off of borrowed money and food).” 

Many of the families of women domestic workers we spoke to are surviving solely on ration donated by civil society and nonprofits. The desperation to find work, earn and overcome the cycle of debt and hunger is evident.

“Sabse zaroori hai kaam milna. Kaam milega, toh kama ke bacchon ko sabzi khila paayegi (It’s most important for us to get a job. If I get a job, I can feed my children vegetables),” says Priya Devi.

“Kaam milega toh karungi, warna ghar pe baithna padhega (I’ll do work if I find it, else I’ll have to sit home),” says Lali Devi (name changed), a domestic worker from Harijan Basti, Gurgaon.

Outside hospitals, families desperate for work crowded around waiting for opportunities to take care of COVID positive patients as the second wave raged. “Kaam waali chahiye (You want a domestic worker)? Meri biwi ko le lo (Take my wife)!” men could be heard shouting, according to Lata, a domestic worker from Krishi Vihar, Delhi.

Image from Martha Farrell Foundation’s COVID-19 Relief Kit Drive for Domestic Workers in Delhi-NCR. Donate a kit here.

With the system rigged against them and their lives hinging on the money they earn at this time, how will domestic workers advocate for their safety in the world of work? How will sexual harassers be put to justice? Is it to be as Sarita Devi, a domestic worker from Harijan Basti, Gurgaon, said, “There is no #MeToo for women like us”?

This International Domestic Workers Day, 2021, as we demand that the Indian government ratify ILO Convention 189, demanding fair pay, and the right to a safe and healthy work environment for women domestic workers, we must include the demand to form and train police and Local Committees to identify, support and help deliver justice to domestic workers in cases of sexual harassment in their world of work.

Nitya Sriram is a Senior Program Officer at the Martha Farrell Foundation.

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An ambassador and trained facilitator under Eco Femme (a social enterprise working towards menstrual health in south India), Sanjina is also an active member of the MHM Collective- India and Menstrual Health Alliance- India. She has conducted Menstrual Health sessions in multiple government schools adopted by Rotary District 3240 as part of their WinS project in rural Bengal. She has also delivered training of trainers on SRHR, gender, sexuality and Menstruation for Tomorrow’s Foundation, Vikramshila Education Resource Society, Nirdhan trust and Micro Finance, Tollygunj Women In Need, Paint It Red in Kolkata.

Now as an MH Fellow with YKA, she’s expanding her impressive scope of work further by launching a campaign to facilitate the process of ensuring better menstrual health and SRH services for women residing in correctional homes in West Bengal. The campaign will entail an independent study to take stalk of the present conditions of MHM in correctional homes across the state and use its findings to build public support and political will to take the necessary action.

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The long-term aim of the campaign is to develop an open culture where menstruation is not treated as a taboo. The campaign also seeks to hold the schools accountable for their responsibilities as an important component in the implementation of MHM policies by making adequate sanitation infrastructure and knowledge of MHM available in school premises.

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Harshita is a psychologist and works to support people with mental health issues, particularly adolescents who are survivors of violence. Associated with the Azadi Foundation in UP, Harshita became an MHM Fellow with YKA, with the aim of promoting better menstrual health.

Her campaign #MeriMarzi aims to promote menstrual health and wellness, hygiene and facilities for female sex workers in UP. She says, “Knowledge about natural body processes is a very basic human right. And for individuals whose occupation is providing sexual services, it becomes even more important.”

Meri Marzi aims to ensure sensitised, non-discriminatory health workers for the needs of female sex workers in the Suraksha Clinics under the UPSACS (Uttar Pradesh State AIDS Control Society) program by creating more dialogues and garnering public support for the cause of sex workers’ menstrual rights. The campaign will also ensure interventions with sex workers to clear misconceptions around overall hygiene management to ensure that results flow both ways.

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MH Fellow Sabna comes with significant experience working with a range of development issues. A co-founder of Project Sakhi Saheli, which aims to combat period poverty and break menstrual taboos, Sabna has, in the past, worked on the issue of menstruation in urban slums of Delhi with women and adolescent girls. She and her team also released MenstraBook, with menstrastories and organised Menstra Tlk in the Delhi School of Social Work to create more conversations on menstruation.

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A student from Delhi School of Social work, Vineet is a part of Project Sakhi Saheli, an initiative by the students of Delhi school of Social Work to create awareness on Menstrual Health and combat Period Poverty. Along with MHM Action Fellow Sabna, Vineet launched Menstratalk, a campaign that aims to put an end to period poverty and smash menstrual taboos in society.

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As a Youth Ki Awaaz Menstrual Health Fellow, Nitisha has started Let’s Talk Period, a campaign to mobilise young people to switch to sustainable period products. She says, “80 lakh women in Delhi use non-biodegradable sanitary products, generate 3000 tonnes of menstrual waste, that takes 500-800 years to decompose; which in turn contributes to the health issues of all menstruators, increased burden of waste management on the city and harmful living environment for all citizens.

Let’s Talk Period aims to change this by

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A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

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A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
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