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Bonhomie To Border Disputes: A History Of Indo-China Relations

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Points of the essay

1. Introduction

2. History of the relations

3. Rise of the problems

4. Steps taken to improve the relations

5. Current Scenario

6. Possible Solutions

7. Conclusion


These two nations had very limited but good cultural and economic relations in the past. They had almost no political interest in each other but now the scenario is completely different from the past, these two Asian giants have serious border issues. They have frequent border clashes and in 1962 they engaged in a war too.

History Of The Relations

Before the colonial era, these two countries were growing well and was engaged in good trade deals with each other and had good cultural relations too. In ancient many Chinese travellers, scholars and ambassadors used to come India to gain more knowledge. For several Chinese students India was an educational destination.

In the starting of 20th century both countries were struggling with foreign powers. India was a direct colony of Britain while China faced a century of humiliation. China was not in the direct control of any foreign country but for a whole century many countries exploited the China and compelled China to sign unequal and humiliating treaties.

India China
Representational image.

In the mid of the 20th century both countries abolished the foreign powers and their imperialism to became independent and democratic nations.

Rise Of The Problems

In 1949 the civil war of China came to an end and the Communist Party of China came victorious out of this under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong became the President of Communist China and he invaded Tibet in 1950 and in 1951 China occupied the whole Tibet. This incident was enough to show the world the greed of Chinese administration.

Western world condemned the annexation of Tibet but India kept the silence regarding the issue because India was looking at China as a friendly country. Indian administration never expected that in future India will have to face China’s aggression.

In order to please China in 1954 India officially recognised Tibet as an integral part of People’s Republic of China and this decision was a blunder mistake of India because after Tibet North-East India was the next target for the China.

In 1962, Indian National Congress and the Government of India under the leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was chanting the slogans of “Hindi-Chini Bhai-Bhai” (Indians and Chinese are brothers) and China declared a war against India to capture Indian territories.

During the Indo-China war 1962 Chinese Army captured a big territory of North-East India and Ladakh.

After the war Chinese forces returned and Indian Armed forces regained most of the territory but Chinese forces did not move back in the Ladakh region and as result they still have the Aksai-chin. China still claims many North-East territories of India as disputed territories.

India did not expect that kind of move from a friendly nation like China but this move was enough for India to prepare for the future.

After the war in 1962 India and China got engaged and in many border conflicts and still the situation is same. Due to the emerging economy and geopolitical importance of India, China looks at India as a threat.

India is also growing as alternative of China for the multinational companies by providing them cheap skilled labour and land with much easier legal formalities.

Growing importance of India in the western world and engaging into international geo-political groups like ‘The Quad’ is another concern for the China. To counter these possible threats from India China is continuously engaging in border conflicts with India.

China is giving financial assistance to Pakistan in order to counter India; Pakistan criticises India on international forums and spread terrorism in India to please China.

Steps Taken To Improve The Relations

From the time of independence India did everything to improve the relations with the China. India supported China on every possible international forum. Even in 1954 India recognised Tibet as a part of China despite of the Pressure from the western world. But it was not enough for China and its communist policies.

Fundamentally China believes in the theory of the expansionism and imperialism. These fundamental values of Communist China gave India the gift of war.

Still meetings and visits of authorities take place to maintain peace but these efforts seem useless and waste of time because of the aggressive policies of the China and the Chinese funding to the Pakistan.

Many talks were arranged in the past years between the authorities of India and China, visits of higher leaderships became frequent in the but the Doklam stand-off between Indian and Chinese army took the situations to the worst and recent clashes near Pangong Tso lake and Galwan Valley were like adding fuel to the fire.

Current Scenario

Presently Mr. Xi Jinping is the President of China and In India Narendra Modi is Prime Minister. Now the both sides are aggressive. On the one hand Mr. Jinping is taking the policies of Mao’s forward at the other hand Narendra Modi is leading the Rightest wing and Nationalist government in the history of India.

India still follows the “No first attack policy’’ but now India gives proper answer. In past India was calm regarding the Pakistan but in past few years India showed its capabilities through the Air Strike and Surgical Strike in the territory of Pakistan.

As per the present the scenario betterment of the relations between India and China is difficult though always there is a ray of hope.

Representational image.

Possible Solutions

From the past scenarios it is clear that India believes in the self-security and development where China believes in the expansion and the fundamental ideologies of communism. If China don’t change its policies regarding border and maintain its fundamental ideology then peace is just impossible.

China shares border with 14 countries and has territorial issues with over 18 countries it shows how much China believes in expansionism and imperialism.

After the pandemic of COVID-19 world is now more annoyed at the China so this is the high time for China to make a new impression on the world with more friendly foreign policies and less aggressions on the borders.


Multipolar world in the terms of the power is the demand of the time for the betterment of the world so no single country can rule the entire world doesn’t matter how ambitious a country is.

So, India and China should believe in cooperation and mutual growth in order to establish peace on the borders and for the betterment of the humanity as they hold half of the world population together.

Good and friendly relations between India and China is beneficial not only for the people of India and China but for the entire world. China and India together can play a vital role in shaping the future of the world.

Featured image is for representational purposes only.
You must be to comment.
  1. Jay Velury

    Accusing China of deception is self-serving while suggesting Nehru was naïve is to grossly misunderstand him. Along with Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai, India under the leadership of Pandit Jawahar Nehru had simultaneously adopted Forward Policy!

    To suggest that China occupied Aksai Chin in 1962 is false. Neither British India nor independent India, ever had the possession of Aksai Chin. China not only vacated every inch it had occupied in October 1962 within 4 weeks but retreated by 20 kilometers even from their own perceived LAC to avoid conflict.

    1. Jay Velury

      Good and friendly relations between India and China being beneficial not only for the people of India and China but for the entire world was Jawaharlal Nehru’s idea! Nehru was the original believer that China and India together can play a vital role in shaping the future of the world, and hence the chant of Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai.

  2. Jay Velury

    Conflict in 1962 was very trivial but Indians will never let it go as they are obsessed with insulting Nehru. Author accusing China of deception and then turning around to recommend friendship with China represents eternal confusion of Indians. Amit Shah vowed to recover Aksai Chin, offering to give up his life. If Nehru could not do something, it simply can’t be done. When Indians understand this fact, lot of problems can be solved!!!

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